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Ch. 14 – Revolution and Nationalism

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1 Ch. 14 – Revolution and Nationalism
I. Revolutions in Russia Before 1917 Revolution: - Decades of unrest and revolts against oppressive Czars - Czar Alexander II assassinated in 1881 by radicals demanding reform A. Czars Resist Change Alexander III – Wanted to crush reformists and radicals who killed his father Autocracy – form of gov’t where one person has total power – AIII wanted to keep it that way - Tried to create uniform Russian culture by oppressing all non-Russian peoples in the empire -AIII targeted Jews with pogroms – gov’t – approved attacks against Jews

2 B. Russia Industrializes
– # of Russian factories doubled, but it was still far behind - Czar Nicholas II – ramped up industrialization in the 1890’s – it was effective, but caused problems: - Poor working conditions, low wages, child labor - gov’t outlawed trade unions - Angry workers organized strikes - Revolutionary groups formed and competed for power

3 Revolutionary Groups:
Marxists – agreed w/ views in Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto, 1848: - Believed the proletariat – working class - would overthrow Czar and rule the country as a “dictatorship of the the proletariat” Marxists split into 2 groups: - Mensheviks – moderates who wanted a broad-based popular revolt that would come gradually - Bolsheviks – wanted a small group of radicals in charge of immediate revolt “Workers of the world, unite! You have noting to lose but your chains!” – Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto

4 Lenin - Born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov – changed his name to Lenin
- Leader of the Bolsheviks, fled Russia before WWI to escape arrest - Charismatic, great organizer, ruthless

5 C. Crises at Home and Abroad
1. Russo-Japanese War: fought over control of Korea & Manchuria - Japan’s battle victories led to unrest & revolt in Russia 2. Bloody Sunday: The Revolution of 1905 - 200,000 workers on a peace march to the Czar’s Winter Palace to request better working conditions and democratic reforms - Czar’s troops opened fire, 1,000 wounded, hundreds killed - Riots & strikes broke out to protest the shootings - Czar allows formation of the Duma – an elected parliament 3. World War I: - Russia – major defeats due to bad leadership, lack of industry - Rasputin- peasant-healer- gained favor w Czarina & made disastrous Decisions in Czar’s absence – eventually killed by nobles - Soldiers deserted, mutinied, ignored orders due to massive losses - Civilians rioted over food & fuel shortages

6 Bloody Sunday, 1905 Rasputin

7 D. The March Revolution - Riots & strikes in the capital, St. Petersburg (Petrograd), soldiers shoot protesters at first, then join them - Czar abdicates – formally resigns – due to revolts Provisional Gov’t – temporary gov’t led by Alexander Kerensky continued the war effort, lost support of soldiers and civilians Soviets – local councils of peasants, workers, and soldiers- gained power, grew more radical Lenin Returns – Germans helped Lenin return to Russia through Germany, Hoping he would cause strife & hurt Russia’s war effort

8 Bolsheviks (Red Army) VS White Army (everybody else)
E. The Bolshevik Revolution - Lenin & Bolsheviks took control of Petrograd Soviet, called for “All power to the Soviets!” AND “Land, Peace, and Bread!” - Workers stormed the Winter Palace, overthrew the Provisional Gov’t - Lenin & Bolsheviks signed treaty of Brest-Litovsk w/ Germany – surrendered large part of Russia’s territory – they don’t get it back - Russians furious w/ Bolsheviks over treaty, murder of royal family Russian Civil War: Bolsheviks (Red Army) VS White Army (everybody else) - Czarists – wanted return of Czarist rule - Republicans – wanted democracy - Socialists – wanted socialism, not Bolshevism - Western nations, including US, sent troops Leon Trotsky – Red Army commander, trounced the White Army

9 G. Stalin Becomes Dictator
F. Lenin Restores Order - Civil War killed 14 million Russians, devastated the economy - New Economic Policy – Lenin allowed peasants to sell excess crops & keep the $, and allowed small private farms businesses to operate – gov’t kept control of major industries and banks - To prevent nationalist uprisings, Lenin divided the territory into several self-governing republics & named the nation the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) to honor the soviet groups which sparked the revolt G. Stalin Becomes Dictator - Lenin had a stroke in 1922, died in 1924 - Trotsky and Joseph Stalin vied for control - Stalin was a Bolshevik hit-man, became a dangerous leader in Communist party - Lenin wanted Trotsky to succeed him, but Stalin drove Trotsky into exile


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