2 The Bolsheviks Who were they? Who was their leader? Bolsheviks – Small Marxist group that came to power and prominence in Russia in the early 1900sWho was their leader?Led by Vladimir LeninWhat was their mission?Wanted to overthrow the Czar (leader of Russia) and institute a government where the proletariat (industrial workers) would be in power
3 Russia Prior to the Revolution Russia was ruled by a rich elite (bourgeoisie) who controlled all lands and means of making moneyThe working class (proletariat) was left poor and struggling trying to feed their families and surviveThis created a great amount of tension as workers felt unappreciated and uncared forThis was very similar to the American industrialists and the working class
4 Key Factors Leading to Revolution The great difference in wealth between the two classes of people – jealousy and angerRussia’s disasterous involvement in World War ILost nearly every battle they were inMany soldiers lost their lives or desertedCreated problems of starvation and disease in the major cities among civiliansCreated a sense of anger and resentment in the army
5 Key Factors Leading to Revolution Czar Nicholas’s lack of leadership with civilians and militaryLeft his wife in charge while off at warTrusted a madman named Gregory Rasputin to help treat his son’s medical conditionRussian people thought Rasputin had control of the familyRasputin was considered immoral as he was a thief, gambler, womanizer, and drunk – presented himself as a holy man with great powersMany Russians felt he was in a relationship with the Czar’s wife
6 Revolution BeginsMarch 8, 1917 – Protests begin in Russian capital of PetrogradProtestors were primarily soldiers, workers, and peasant classes of RussiaProtestors force Czar to disband the DumaDuma – Legislative body (law makers) of the Russian Government – much like our CongressDuma defies Czar’s order – Nicholas lost control of the entire Russian populaceMarch 15, 1917 – Czar Nicholas II abdicates (gives up) throne as leader of RussiaThis event in March was called the “February Revolution”
7 The Provisional Government Takes over after “February Revolution”Many Russians were unhappy with this government…why?They refused to get Russia out of World War INo help in getting land and food to Russian peopleContinued many of the same policies as the CzarLeader of Government – Alexander Kerensky
8 Bolsheviks – Voice of Opposition Led by Lenin and his followersMovement became known as Marxism-LeninismLenin returned from exile in April 1917Germans moved him back to create turmoil and get Russians out of the war
9 Bolshevik Revolution How did it start? Failed military push against Germany and Austria led to a revolt among soldiers of Russian armyWhat was Lenin’s Revolution called by Russians?The “October Revolution”Started in November 1917The Revolt was nearly bloodless and led to capture of Provisional Government and Lenin’s take over with Bolsheviks
10 Initial Actions by Lenin’s Government What did Bolsheviks do for the Russian people?Made Private Ownership of Land illegalGave land to the peasants and working classesSeized control of Russian factories from wealthy ownersGave workers control over the factoriesGot Russians out of World War IMade peace deal with Germany – lost land but gained popular supportDeal was made with Germany by Leon Trotsky – a top official under Lenin
11 The Civil War What started this Civil War? The acceptance of a peace treaty with Germany that cost Russia territoryCivil War was fought between rival Bolshevik groupsWhite Russians – against LeninPolitical officials, Army officers, Wealthy RussiansRed Russians – fought for LeninCivil War led to a famine that killed millions of RussiansRed Army wins the Civil War – Lenin maintains power
12 Post Civil War – Birth of the Soviet Union Lenin had to help people recover from Civil War and famineEnacted the “New Economic Policy” – this was a plan that permitted farmers to sell food for a profit which stimulated the economyUsed Capitalism to get Socialist government runningPolicy started in 1921Encouraged more food production
13 Post Civil War – Birth of the Soviet Union Lenin had name changed of RussiaNow called the Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsKnown also as: USSR, Soviet Union1924 – Lenin dies – a new Civil War starts over who would be in control of government
14 Question Slide 1 of 3Who were the Bolsheviks and who was their leader?What did the Bolsheviks see as their mission?What was Russia like prior to the Revolution?What were the key factors in Russia that led to Revolution?When was the first revolution and what was it called? Who made up the protesters?
15 Question Slide 2 of 3What is the Duma? What did Czar Nicholas II do to the Duma after the protests? What was the Duma’s response to the Czar?When did Czar Nicholas II step down from leadership?Why did the Russian people not like the provisional government that took over after the Czar? Who was the leader of the government?Who helped to send Lenin back to Russia?
16 Question Slide 3 of 3 When was the “October Revolution”? After Lenin takes over, what 3 things does his government do?What led to the Civil War between White and Red Russians?What was the “New Economic Policy”?What did Russia become known in 1922? When did Lenin die?