Presentation on theme: "Communist Revolution in Russia End of a Czar. The Bolsheviks Who were they? – Bolsheviks – Small Marxist group that came to power and prominence in Russia."— Presentation transcript:
Communist Revolution in Russia End of a Czar
The Bolsheviks Who were they? – Bolsheviks – Small Marxist group that came to power and prominence in Russia in the early 1900s Who was their leader? – Led by Vladimir Lenin What was their mission? – Wanted to overthrow the Czar (leader of Russia) and institute a government where the proletariat (industrial workers) would be in power
Russia Prior to the Revolution Russia was ruled by a rich elite (bourgeoisie) who controlled all lands and means of making money The working class (proletariat) was left poor and struggling trying to feed their families and survive This created a great amount of tension as workers felt unappreciated and uncared for – This was very similar to the American industrialists and the working class
Key Factors Leading to Revolution The great difference in wealth between the two classes of people – jealousy and anger Russia’s disasterous involvement in World War I -Lost nearly every battle they were in -Many soldiers lost their lives or deserted -Created problems of starvation and disease in the major cities among civilians -Created a sense of anger and resentment in the army
Key Factors Leading to Revolution Czar Nicholas’s lack of leadership with civilians and military – Left his wife in charge while off at war – Trusted a madman named Gregory Rasputin to help treat his son’s medical condition Russian people thought Rasputin had control of the family Rasputin was considered immoral as he was a thief, gambler, womanizer, and drunk – presented himself as a holy man with great powers Many Russians felt he was in a relationship with the Czar’s wife
Revolution Begins March 8, 1917 – Protests begin in Russian capital of Petrograd – Protestors were primarily soldiers, workers, and peasant classes of Russia – Protestors force Czar to disband the Duma Duma – Legislative body (law makers) of the Russian Government – much like our Congress – Duma defies Czar’s order – Nicholas lost control of the entire Russian populace March 15, 1917 – Czar Nicholas II abdicates (gives up) throne as leader of Russia This event in March was called the “February Revolution”
The Provisional Government Takes over after “February Revolution” Many Russians were unhappy with this government…why? – They refused to get Russia out of World War I – No help in getting land and food to Russian people – Continued many of the same policies as the Czar Leader of Government – Alexander Kerensky
Bolsheviks – Voice of Opposition Led by Lenin and his followers – Movement became known as Marxism-Leninism – Lenin returned from exile in April 1917 Germans moved him back to create turmoil and get Russians out of the war
Bolshevik Revolution How did it start? – Failed military push against Germany and Austria led to a revolt among soldiers of Russian army What was Lenin’s Revolution called by Russians? – The “October Revolution” – Started in November 1917 The Revolt was nearly bloodless and led to capture of Provisional Government and Lenin’s take over with Bolsheviks
Initial Actions by Lenin’s Government What did Bolsheviks do for the Russian people? – Made Private Ownership of Land illegal Gave land to the peasants and working classes – Seized control of Russian factories from wealthy owners Gave workers control over the factories – Got Russians out of World War I Made peace deal with Germany – lost land but gained popular support Deal was made with Germany by Leon Trotsky – a top official under Lenin
The Civil War What started this Civil War? – The acceptance of a peace treaty with Germany that cost Russia territory Civil War was fought between rival Bolshevik groups – White Russians – against Lenin Political officials, Army officers, Wealthy Russians – Red Russians – fought for Lenin Civil War led to a famine that killed millions of Russians – Red Army wins the Civil War – Lenin maintains power
Post Civil War – Birth of the Soviet Union Lenin had to help people recover from Civil War and famine – Enacted the “New Economic Policy” – this was a plan that permitted farmers to sell food for a profit which stimulated the economy Used Capitalism to get Socialist government running Policy started in 1921 Encouraged more food production
Post Civil War – Birth of the Soviet Union Lenin had name changed of Russia – Now called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – Known also as: USSR, Soviet Union 1924 – Lenin dies – a new Civil War starts over who would be in control of government
Question Slide 1 of 3 1.Who were the Bolsheviks and who was their leader? 2.What did the Bolsheviks see as their mission? 3.What was Russia like prior to the Revolution? 4.What were the key factors in Russia that led to Revolution? 5.When was the first revolution and what was it called? Who made up the protesters?
Question Slide 2 of 3 1.What is the Duma? What did Czar Nicholas II do to the Duma after the protests? What was the Duma’s response to the Czar? 2.When did Czar Nicholas II step down from leadership? 3.Why did the Russian people not like the provisional government that took over after the Czar? Who was the leader of the government? 4.Who helped to send Lenin back to Russia?
Question Slide 3 of 3 1.When was the “October Revolution”? 2.After Lenin takes over, what 3 things does his government do? 3.What led to the Civil War between White and Red Russians? 4.What was the “New Economic Policy”? 5.What did Russia become known in 1922? When did Lenin die?