2Causes for the Russian Revolution Russia is not industrializedWorld War I Losses and Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese war leads to unrestFuel shortages, poor working conditionsFactory workers: overworked, almost homelessThe elected assembly (Duma) were blocked by tsar (king) and leads to widespread sufferingAbsolute ruler Tsar Nicholas II displays weak leadership
3What is the February Revolution? Also called the March Revolution Huge protest on National Women’s day“Bread, Bread!”Petrograd (St. Petersburg) is paralyzedTsar Nicholas II abdicates (leaves the throne)
4Results? Duma sets up a temporary government They prepare a constitutionSoviets (councils) of workers worked with provisional governmentThe Bolshevikstook control of sovietsBolshevik leader Vladimir Llyich Ulyanov (Lenin)
6What’s a Bolshevik? The term means “majority” in Russian An elite group would lead the revolution and set up a “dictatorship of the proletariat” (lower classes)This elite revolutionary party represented only a small percentage of the populationMenshevik means “minority”
7Lenin Lenin was a Marxist and believed in communism. He was exiled to Siberia and later went to Switzerland.Germany helped Lenin return to Russia.Lenin promised “Peace, Land and Bread.”
8October Revolution (1917) AKA November Revolution The provisional government did not make adequate reforms.Red guards (factory workers and sailors) attacked the provisional government in St. Petersburg and overtook it.Moscow became the Bolshevik headquarters/capital.Changes: Ended private ownership.Entwined hammer and sickle symbolize union between workers and peasants.
9World War I Ends Only for Russia Bolsheviks believe it is a capitalist war.Russia negotiates an independent peace treaty with GermanyLeon Trotsky negotiated treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 1918Russia gave up a huge western portion of its population
10Russian Civil War Reds: Communists Whites: Counterrevolutionaries. Tsarist imperial officers, Mensheviks, Democrats, and others who wanted to defeat the Bolsheviks. Also Britain, France and the United StatesBrutal war. Communists killed former tsar and tsarina and their five children in July 1918Rumors that Anastasia survivedTrotsky created a disciplined armyReds won in 1921
11What did this new state look like? 1922 Lenin’s Communist government united much of the old Russian empire into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) or Soviet UnionThe communists produced a constitution that was democratic and socialistan elected legislature and universal suffrageThey did not believe in private property (tetris example)Used the army and secret police
12Lenin’s New Economic Policy (1921) “War communism” over. Party had controlled everything and output downIn NEP, Capitalist ventures were allowed for small businessThe state controls banks, foreign trade, and large industriesPeasants were allowed to freely sell their surplus crops1928, food and industrial production climbed to prewar levels and standard of living rose
13Ch-ch-ch-ch-changes Tsarist rule (monarchy) ended in Russia. Lenin died in 1924 at 54 years of age. Trotsky and Stalin battled for power.Trotsky: brilliant Marxist thinker, a skilled speaker, an architect of the Bolshevik RevolutionStalin not a scholar or orator but a skilled organizer and political operatorStalin stripped Trotsky of party membership and fled the country in 1929In 1940, a Stalinist agent murdered Trotsky in Mexico.Stalin became the new leader of the USSR
14When did the Russian Revolution end? Good question.