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RUSSIAN REVOLUTION chapter 11.5. CHARACTERISTICS OF 19 TH CENTURY CZARS Autocracy Harsh measures against opponents Secret police Pogroms Oppression of.

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Presentation on theme: "RUSSIAN REVOLUTION chapter 11.5. CHARACTERISTICS OF 19 TH CENTURY CZARS Autocracy Harsh measures against opponents Secret police Pogroms Oppression of."— Presentation transcript:

1 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION chapter 11.5

2 CHARACTERISTICS OF 19 TH CENTURY CZARS Autocracy Harsh measures against opponents Secret police Pogroms Oppression of non-Russians Resistance to change

3 EVENTS OF 1905 Bloody Sunday 200,000 workers march on czar’s winter palace Troops fire on crowd, 1,000 + killed Creation of Duma First parliament of Russia Czar forced to share power; dissolved it after 10 weeks

4 NICHOLAS II’s MISTAKES Brought Russia into WWI Moved Headquarters to front in WWI Czarina Alexandra given power; she became influenced by Rasputin Rasputin was freaky, crazy, and corrupt People poor and starving; lots of unrest

5 MARCH 1917 (February in Russian Calendar) 200,000 workers march on St. Petersburg (Petrograd) over bread and fuel shortages Czar’s soldiers joined the crowds “DOWN WITH AUTOCRACY!”

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7 PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Temporary Government Led by: Alexander Kerensky But the Provisional Government did not have as much power as the…

8 Formed by social revolutionaries Local councils in cities Consisted of workers, peasants, and soldiers

9 MISTAKES OF PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Biggest mistake: kept Russia in World War One Also, did not help workers or peasants with food and fuel shortages Lost all support!

10 NOVEMBER REVOLUTION Led by: Vladimir Lenin, leader of Bolshevik Party (Communists!) His slogan: “Peace, Land, and Bread” Bolshevik Red Guards took over gov’t offices; arrested Prov. Gov’t leaders Bolsheviks in power November 1917

11 All farmland distributed to peasants Factories controlled by workers End Russia’s involvement in WWI Gained many opponents, leading to Russian Civil War

12 RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR RED ARMY Bolsheviks (Communists!) Led by…Leon Trotsky WHITE ARMY Opponents of Bolsheviks in Russia; western nations like the USA

13 RESULTS OF THE CIVIL WAR Red Army crushes all opposition to Bolshevik rule Russian economy destroyed: no trade or industrial production

14 BOLSHEVIKS BECOME KNOWN AS… THE COMMUNIST PARTY (still led by Lenin)

15 THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY 1921 To help Russia recover from the war Lenin allowed for a little bit of capitalism Peasants could sell surplus (extra) crops for profit Individuals could buy and sell goods for profit Some small factories, farms, and businesses allowed

16 NEW COUNTRY Lenin organized Russia into self-governing republics Central Government controlled them! 1922: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Capital: Moscow Lenin had created a “Dictatorship of the Communist Party” This becomes known as Leninism

17 Soviet Union Moving Forward 1924 – Lenin dies Power struggle between Leon Trotsky & Joseph Stalin –Stalin wins, Trotsky murdered Stalin turns to ruthless measures to win dictatorial power

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