2CHARACTERISTICS OF 19TH CENTURY CZARS AutocracyHarsh measures against opponentsSecret policePogromsOppression of non-RussiansResistance to change
3EVENTS OF 1905 Bloody Sunday 200,000 workers march on czar’s winter palaceTroops fire on crowd, 1,000 + killedCreation of DumaFirst parliament of RussiaCzar forced to share power; dissolved it after 10 weeks
4NICHOLAS II’s MISTAKES Brought Russia into WWIMoved Headquarters to front in WWICzarina Alexandra given power; she became influenced by RasputinRasputin was freaky, crazy, and corruptPeople poor and starving; lots of unrest
5THE MARCH REVOLUTION MARCH 1917 (February in Russian Calendar) 200,000 workers march on St. Petersburg (Petrograd) over bread and fuel shortagesCzar’s soldiers joined the crowds“DOWN WITH AUTOCRACY!”
6CZAR'S FAMILY EXECUTED IN... NICHOLAS II ABDICATESCZAR'S FAMILY EXECUTED IN...1918
7PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Temporary GovernmentLed by:Alexander KerenskyBut the Provisional Government did not have as much power as the…
8SOVIETSFormed by social revolutionariesLocal councils in citiesConsisted of workers, peasants, and soldiers
9MISTAKES OF PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Biggest mistake: kept Russia in World War OneAlso, did not help workers or peasants with food and fuel shortagesLost all support!
10NOVEMBER REVOLUTION Led by: Vladimir Lenin, leader of Bolshevik Party (Communists!)His slogan:“Peace, Land, and Bread”Bolshevik Red Guards took over gov’t offices; arrested Prov. Gov’t leadersBolsheviks in power November 1917
11All farmland distributed to peasants Factories controlled by workers LENIN'S FIRST MOVES...All farmland distributed to peasantsFactories controlled by workersEnd Russia’s involvement in WWIGained many opponents, leading to Russian Civil War
12RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR 1918-1920 WINNERS! LOSERS! RED ARMY Bolsheviks (Communists!)Led by…Leon TrotskyWHITE ARMYOpponents of Bolsheviks in Russia; western nations like the USA15 million dead!WINNERS!LOSERS!
13RESULTS OF THE CIVIL WAR Red Army crushes all opposition to Bolshevik ruleRussian economy destroyed: no trade or industrial production
14BOLSHEVIKS BECOME KNOWN AS… THE COMMUNIST PARTY(still led by Lenin)
15THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY 1921 To help Russia recover from the war Lenin allowed for a little bit of capitalismPeasants could sell surplus (extra) crops for profitIndividuals could buy and sell goods for profitSome small factories, farms, and businesses allowed
16NEW COUNTRY Lenin organized Russia into self-governing republics Central Government controlled them!1922: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)Capital: MoscowLenin had created a “Dictatorship of the Communist Party”This becomes known as Leninism
17Soviet Union Moving Forward 1924 – Lenin diesPower struggle between Leon Trotsky & Joseph StalinStalin wins, Trotsky murderedStalin turns to ruthless measures to win dictatorial power