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Presentation on theme: "C HAPTER 7 B ALANCING N ATIONALISM AND S ECTIONALISM."— Presentation transcript:


2 I. R EGIONAL E CONOMIES A. Another Revolution Affects America Mass production : goods made in large quantities Led to the Industrial Revolution 1. Great Britain Starts a Revolution Very guarded about their industry 2. The Industrial Revolution in America Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812 made Americans try to produce their own goods

3 A. A NOTHER R EVOLUTION CONT. 3. New England Industrializes Used rivers for power Used southern cotton for textiles Govt. encouraged growth with capitalism and free enterprise Samuel Slater memorized plans Set up factory in Rhode Island 1814 Francis Cabot Lowell put all stages of textiles in one building Factory System

4 B. T WO E CONOMIC S YSTEMS D EVELOP 1. Agriculture in the North Raised one or two crops to sustain the family Like corn and cattle 2. Cotton is King in the South Cotton Gin: Eli Whitney, 1793 patent Could clean cotton 50 times faster Plantations began to grow in number 3. Slavery Becomes Entrenched Slavery booms 1790 to 1820, production of cotton grows 100 times bigger 1808, 250,000 slaves were brought to America The same number as were brought from 1619 to 1776



7 C. C LAY P ROPOSES THE A MERICAN S YSTEM Proposed originally by Madison in 1815 Develop transportation and internal improvements Establish a protective tariff Resurrect the national bank Thought it would unite the nation 1. Erie Canal and Other Internal Improvements Toll roads (turnpikes) Corduroy roads 1818, the National Road opened after 12 years of delays Extended to Illinois in 1838 Erie Canal 363 miles w/ locks Opened on Oct. 26, 1825 Did not allow steamboats at first Canal building boom By 1850, 3,600 miles of canals


9 C. T HE A MERICAN S YSTEM CONT. 2. Tariffs and the National Bank British goods were much cheaper than American ones Tariffs encouraged people to buy American Madison proposed the Tariff of 1816 Would help pay for internal improvements Southerners and Westerners opposed it Clay and Calhoun helped pass it 2 nd Bank of the U.S. was chartered in 1816 1816, James Monroe was elected President Ushered in the Era of Good Feelings No political divisions, extreme patriotism, and economic growth Toured the nation to warm- welcomes Won every electoral vote but one in 1820

10 II. Nationalism at Center Stage A. The Supreme Court Boosts National Power Chief Justice John Marshall Gibbons v. Ogden ruled that Congress had power over interstate commerce 1. Strengthening Govt. Economic Control McCulloch v. Maryland National govt. was supported over state govts. Maryland tried to tax the Bank of U.S. 2. Limiting State Powers Marshall did this several times

11 B. Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy John Quincy Adams guided American Foreign Policy 1. Territory and Boundaries 1817 Rush-Bagot Treaty disarmed the Great Lakes Convention of 1818 disarmed the 49 th parallel as the Canada-U.S. border Americans can settle Oregon 1818 Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish East FLA and took forts to stop Seminole raids Adams-Onis Treaty 1819 U.S. got FLA for $5 million and gave up claims to Texas Agreed on a border to the Pacific U.S. a transcontinental power now

12 B. Nationalism cont. 2. The Monroe Doctrine 1810 Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican Revolution Won independence in 1821 Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin led many nations to freedom Brazil gained independence in 1822 European nations threatened the new nations 1823, Western hemisphere is closed to further colonization It is America’s sphere of influence

13 C. America Pushes West 1. Expansion in the West New states being added Communities along major waterways People often settled as communities Backwards lifestyles often Few modern conveniences

14 C. American Pushes West cont. 2. The Missouri Compromise 1820 Missouri wants to join the Union A slave state Would upset the balance of power Maine applied too Compromise MO: Slave ME: Free Slavery banned north of the 36°30’ N parallel

15 III. The Age of Jackson A. Expanding Democracy 1. Tension Between Adams and Jackson The Election of 1824 Four republican candidates William Crawford Andrew Jackson Henry Clay John Quincy Adams All favorite sons of their states Striking a Bargain Jackson won the popular vote No majority in the electoral college Election went to the House Henry Clay influenced voters to pick Adams He became Sec. of State “Corrupt Bargain”


17 A. Expanding Democracy cont. The Adams Presidency Never escaped the “corrupt bargain” Policies ran against public opinion, stronger fed. Govt. 2. Democracy and Citizenship Voting requirements were eased Three times as many people voted as the last election The Election of 1828 Jackson supporters formed the Democratic-Rep. or the Democrats Adams: Natl. Republicans Mudslinging, slogans, rallies, and buttons introduced to campaigning Attacks on Adams’ character and Jackson’s wife Jackson Triumphs John C. Calhoun VP Landslide victory

18 B. Jackson’s New Presidential Style 1. Jackson’s Appeal to the Common Citizen Big inauguration party 20,000 ruffians, bathtubs of OJ and whiskey, and Jackson escaping through a window “Old Hickory” Lived the Am. Dream Orphaned at age of 14, veteran of Am. Rev. Killed a man in a duel over a slur against his wife, fought in 13 duels Survived the 1 st assassination attempt Pet Parrot swore, a lot, had to be removed from his funeral Last public party featured a 1400 lb wheel of cheese Ate in 2 hours “Equal protection and equal benefits”


20 B. Jackson’s New Presidential Style cont. 2. Spoils System Put people who helped him into govt. jobs To the victor goes the spoils Fired about 10% of federal employees and replaced them with allies His friends were his main advisors His “kitchen cabinet”

21 C. Removal of Native Americans Southeast, “Five Civilized Tribes” Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw Whites wanted to remove them west of the Mississippi Jackson supported this 1. Indian Removal Act Passed in 1830, gave payments for Native to move to Okla.

22 C. Removal of Native Americans cont. 2. The Cherokee Sued the state govt. and won in the Supreme Court Jackson vowed to ignore the ruling 3. The Trail of Tears 1835, the Cherokee gave in, signed a treaty 17,000 refused to honor 1838 Gen. Winfield Scott with 7,000 troops forced them to leave Marched in brutal weather west Thousands died

23 C. Removal of Native Americans cont. 4. Native American Resistance 1832, Chief Black Hawk led the Sauk and Fox to retake Illinois State militia ended it The Seminole Wars Osceola led them 1835, joined forces with African Americans Used guerilla tactics Dade Massacre killed almost 100 men By 1842, 1,500 Americans killed in the Seminole wars Seminoles were allowed to stay The only tribe to win Gave up 100 million acres for $68 million and 32 million acres Force to live in Okla., adapt to plains group’s way of life

24 IV. States’ Rights and the National Bank A. A Tariff Raises the States’ Rights Issue 1828, Congress passed a high tariff 1. The Nullification Theory The Tariff of Abominations VP Calhoun argued states could nullify it Some wanted secession Nullification had the potential to destroy the union 2. Jackson Takes a Stand No one was sure of his views 1830, at a state’s rights dinner Jackson, “Our federal union… must be preserved Calhoun doesn’t run for the VP again and returns to the Senate

25 A. Tariffs and States’ Rights cont. 3. South Carolina Rebels 1832, Congress passed a lower tariff Protests still raging S.C. passed the Nullification Act Threatened to secede Jackson helped Clay pass a compromise 1833 Force Bill, President could send troops to enforce federal laws S.C. nullified it They claimed a victory because the tariff was altered

26 B. Jackson Attacks the National Bank 1. Jackson Opposes the Bank Nicholas Biddle, bank pres. wanted to recharter the bank early If Jackson vetoed, it would hurt reelection If not, Bank continues New Charter in 1832 by Clay and Webster Jackson vetoed it 2. The Election of 1832 The people loved it and reelected him easily Jackson took all govt. money out, the Bank closed Put money in Pet Banks Jackson never incurred a debt in office 3. Whig Party forms Clay, Adams, and Webster formed a new party to counter Jackson

27 C. Van Buren Deals with Jackson’s Legacy Martin Van Buren elected over the Whig party 1. Jackson’s Legacy Pet banks were corrupt and failed Two months after inauguration, depression hit the economy Buren: Laissez-faire It would fix itself Est. the federal treasury Criticism split the Democratic Party


29 C. Van Buren cont. 2. Harrison and Tyler 1840, William Henry Harrison vs. Van Buren “Tippecanoe and Tyler too” Log cabin campaign for Harrison Harrison won and was inaugurated in 1841 Cold, rainy day: wore no coat, gave longest inauguration speech Died a month later of pneumonia John Tyler didn’t follow the Whig party Expelled from the party for stopping a new Bank of U.S. Called “His Accidency” Whigs voted on sectional ties Killed the party

30 CHAPTER 7 BALANCING NATIONALISM AND SECTIONALISM QUESTIONS 1. What factors led to the growth of the U.S. economy in the early 1800s? (economic system, inventions, new manufacturing methods). How did this affect the American’s lived and worked? 2. How did the cotton gin revive slavery in the South? How did it change the way southerners farmed? 3. What did the Monroe Doctrine say? Could America effectively uphold this doctrine in the early 1800s? Explain. Why is the doctrine still important today? 4. How did the issue of tariffs almost split the country and send into a civil war? Why was the issue of nullification so critical in keeping the country together? 5. What did the U.S. government do to the “Five Civilized Tribes”? How did the Cherokee try to resist and what eventually happened to their people? 6. How did Jackson’s opposition to the Bank of the U.S. affect the election of 1832? What did his opponents hope to do by making Jackson veto the charter and what actually happened?


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