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Unity and Sectionalism

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1 Unity and Sectionalism
Section 3—Chapter 10

2 The Era of Good Feelings
A sense of National Unity after the War of 1812 Federalist all but disappear since they didn’t support the War of 1812 The 5th President of the USA was James Monroe (Democratic Republican) a. No one really opposed him

3 Sectionalism Grows Regional differences soon began to surface
Strong allegiance to their region (Westerners, Southerners, Northerners) Sectionalism—Loyalty to their region Conflict over slavery Southerners stress States’ rights Tariffs, National Bank, and Internal Improvements become major issues


5 John Calhoun Planter/War Hawk from South Carolina
Favored support for internal improvements and developing industry. Favored the National Bank Views changed and he begins to favor State Sovereignty—the idea that states have autonomous power Was against High Tariffs

6 Daniel Webster Elected to Congress in 1812—New Hampshire
Favored the Tariff of 1816—protected American industries from foreign competition Great Speaker/Orator “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!”


8 Henry Clay War Hawk from Kentucky—Speaker of the House of Rep in 1811
Helped create the Treaty of Ghent the ended the War of 1812 Tried to resolve sectional disputes through compromise


10 Missouri Compromise Sectional Tension reaches new heights
Slavery the big issue The South wanted Missouri admitted as a slave state—Northerners wanted it as a Free-State Henry Clay helped work out a solution Missouri Compromise---Missouri a slave state Maine admitted as a free state Banned Slavery North of the 36 30’N parallel


12 The American System Henry Clay called for a protective tariff;
a program of internal improvements, especially the building of roads and canals, to stimulate trade a national bank to control inflation and to lend money to build developing industries.

13 McCulloch v. Maryland Maryland imposed a tax on the Balitmore branch of the 2nd National Bank (a Federal Bank) Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Maryland had no right to tax a federal institution.

14 Gibbons v. Ogden Established that states could not enact legislation (laws) that would interfere with Congressional Power over interstate commerce

15 Foreign Affairs Relations with Britain
Sec. of State John Quincy Adams try to resolve disputes with Britain and Spain Rush-Bagot Treaty USA and Britain set limits on the number of naval ships each could have on the Great Lakes Disarmament—removal of weapons Americans get the right to settle in the Oregon Country

16 Relations with Spain 1818 Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish Florida, seized 2 forts and hanged 2 British agents Sec. of War Calhoun wanted Jackson court-martialed—tried by the military court Adams-Onis Treaty Spain gave Florida to the USA USA gave up claims to Texas 42nd Parallel becomes the border


18 Latin American Republics
Mexico Miguel Hidalgo led a rebellion against Spain 1810 Miguel is executed but by 1821 Mexico gained its independence Bolivar and San Martin Simon Bolivar “Liberator”-won the independence for Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Bolivia, and Ecuador Jose de San Martin gained independence for Chili and Peru

19 The Monroe Doctrine Document stated that the Western Hemisphere was closed to new European colonization. This document becomes the most import element of American foreign policy

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