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Primary & Secondary Survey

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Presentation on theme: "Primary & Secondary Survey"— Presentation transcript:

1 Primary & Secondary Survey
VICTIM ASSESSMENT Primary & Secondary Survey

2 Beginning First Aid Do not move the injured or suddenly ill person until you have a clear idea of the injury or illness and have applied first aid The exception occurs when the victim is exposed to further danger at the accident scene The first aider must not assume that the obvious injuries are the only ones present because less noticeable ones may have occured

3 Victim Assessment Get the victim’s consent
Gain the victim’s confidence Identify the problems and determine which requires immediate first aid Get info. about victim to give to EMS

4 Primary Survey The primary survey is the first step in assessing a victim. A - Airway Open? B - Breathing? C - Circulation at carotid pulse? H - Hemorrhage - severe bleeding?

5 Secondary Survey Look for important signs and symptoms of injury
Sign - something the first aider sees, hears, or feels (pale face, no respiration, cool skin) Symptom - Something the victim tells the first aider (nausea, back pain, no feeling in extremities)

6 Secondary Survey - Part 1
Interview - Identify yourself and get consent Ask about chief complaint For unconscious victim, monitor breathing and pulse, and if needed, render rescue breathing or CPR

7 Interview After finding chief complaint use S-A-M-P-L-E for taking history and P-A-I-N as a way of describing pain S-ymptoms (chief complaint) A-llergies (may give a clue to problem M-edication (may give clue to problem) P-reexisting illnesses ( L-ast food (in case of surgery or food poisoning) E-vents prior to injury

8 P-A-I-N P-eriod of pain (how long? What started it? A-rea (Where?)
I-ntensity (How strong?) N-ullify (What stops it? Such as rest, certain positions)

9 Secondary Survey #2 Interview is #1 part of secondary survey
#2 is Vital Signs Pulse , note rate, rhythm & volume Respiration breaths/min. Listen for whistle or wheeze-constricted airway A crowing sound - constricted airway A gurgling sound - fluid in airway A snoring sound - tongue blockage Temperature - note skin condition - temperature & color capillary refill

10 Secondary Survey #3 Head-to-Toe Exam
Tell victim what is being done Do not aggravate injuries or contaminate wounds Do not move the victim in case of neck and spinal injuries Removing clothing is not usually necessary

11 Head-to-Toe Exam Head & Neck
Check scalp for bleeding or deformity (goose egg or depression) Do not move head Check ears and nose for clear fluid or bloody discharge Mouth for blood or foreign body

12 Head-to-Toe Exam - Eyes
Pupil Size - constricted or dilated Look for unequal pupils - Use flashlight to see if pupils are reactive to light No reaction could mean death, coma, cataracts, or artificial eye

13 Eye - (continued) Look at inner eyelid surface - should be pink
Pale color may indicate anemia or blood loss PEARL - Pupils equal and reactive to light

14 Head-to-Toe Exam - Chest
Check for cuts, bruises, penetrations, and impaled objects Warn victim you are going to apply pressure to the sides of the chest Pain from squeezing or compressing may indicate rib fracture

15 Head-to-Toe Exam - Abdomen
Anything protruding or pentrating If complaint is abdominal pain - ask victim to point to pain Feel for abnormal lumps Do not push too deep Check for guarding

16 Head-to-Toe Exam- Extremity Assessment
Check arms and legs for injury, deformity, or tenderness Compare two sides of body Check circulation - pulse, warmth of part, and capillary refill (greater than 2 seconds is abnormal)

17 Extremity Assessment - (cont)
Check the radial pulse - in the wrist Check the pedal pulse - on the ankle or top of the foot for circulation

18 Head-to-Toe Exam-Spine and Back Assessment
Help victim to avoid excessive movement Check sensation and strength in all extremities by having them press their foot against your hand Spinal injury - may show paraplegia - paralysis in both legs The stroke victim is likely to have hemiplegia - hemi (half), plegia (paralysis) Paralysis of an arm or leg on the same side of the body

19 Putting it all Together
The assessment will be influenced by whether the victim is suffering from a medical problem or injury Whether conscious or unconscious Whether life-threatening conditions are present

20 Medical Alert Tag May be worn as necklace or bracelet
Attracts attention in an emergency situation Contain wearer’s medical problem and 24-hour phone # to call in case of emergency Do not remove

21 CALL EMS Give following info: Victim’s location Your phone #
What has happened #of persons needing assistance Condition of victim What is being done Always be last to hang up

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