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VICTIM ASSESSMENT Primary & Secondary Survey Beginning First Aid w Do not move the injured or suddenly ill person until you have a clear idea of the.

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Presentation on theme: "VICTIM ASSESSMENT Primary & Secondary Survey Beginning First Aid w Do not move the injured or suddenly ill person until you have a clear idea of the."— Presentation transcript:


2 VICTIM ASSESSMENT Primary & Secondary Survey

3 Beginning First Aid w Do not move the injured or suddenly ill person until you have a clear idea of the injury or illness and have applied first aid w The exception occurs when the victim is exposed to further danger at the accident scene w The first aider must not assume that the obvious injuries are the only ones present because less noticeable ones may have occured

4 Victim Assessment w Get the victim’s consent w Gain the victim’s confidence w Identify the problems and determine which requires immediate first aid w Get info. about victim to give to EMS

5 Primary Survey w The primary survey is the first step in assessing a victim. w A - Airway Open? w B - Breathing? w C - Circulation at carotid pulse? w H - Hemorrhage - severe bleeding?

6 Secondary Survey w Look for important signs and symptoms of injury w Sign - something the first aider sees, hears, or feels (pale face, no respiration, cool skin) w Symptom - Something the victim tells the first aider (nausea, back pain, no feeling in extremities)

7 Secondary Survey - Part 1 w Interview - Identify yourself and get consent w Ask about chief complaint w For unconscious victim, monitor breathing and pulse, and if needed, render rescue breathing or CPR

8 Interview w After finding chief complaint use S-A-M- P-L-E for taking history and P-A-I-N as a way of describing pain w S-ymptoms (chief complaint) w A-llergies (may give a clue to problem w M-edication (may give clue to problem) w P-reexisting illnesses ( w L-ast food (in case of surgery or food poisoning) w E-vents prior to injury

9 P-A-I-N w P-eriod of pain (how long? What started it? w A-rea (Where?) w I-ntensity (How strong?) w N-ullify (What stops it? Such as rest, certain positions)

10 Secondary Survey #2 w Interview is #1 part of secondary survey w #2 is Vital Signs w Pulse , note rate, rhythm & volume w Respiration breaths/min. Listen for whistle or wheeze- constricted airway w A crowing sound - constricted airway w A gurgling sound - fluid in airway w A snoring sound - tongue blockage w Temperature - note skin condition - temperature & color capillary refill

11 Secondary Survey #3 Head-to-Toe Exam w Tell victim what is being done w Do not aggravate injuries or contaminate wounds w Do not move the victim in case of neck and spinal injuries w Removing clothing is not usually necessary

12 Head-to-Toe Exam w Head & Neck w Check scalp for bleeding or deformity (goose egg or depression) w Do not move head w Check ears and nose for clear fluid or bloody discharge w Mouth for blood or foreign body

13 Head-to-Toe Exam - Eyes w Pupil Size - constricted or dilated w Look for unequal pupils - w Use flashlight to see if pupils are reactive to light w No reaction could mean death, coma, cataracts, or artificial eye

14 Eye - (continued) w Look at inner eyelid surface - should be pink w Pale color may indicate anemia or blood loss w PEARL - Pupils equal and reactive to light

15 Head-to-Toe Exam - Chest w Check for cuts, bruises, penetrations, and impaled objects w Warn victim you are going to apply pressure to the sides of the chest w Pain from squeezing or compressing may indicate rib fracture

16 Head-to-Toe Exam - Abdomen w Anything protruding or pentrating w If complaint is abdominal pain - ask victim to point to pain w Feel for abnormal lumps w Do not push too deep w Check for guarding

17 Head-to-Toe Exam- Extremity Assessment w Check arms and legs for injury, deformity, or tenderness w Compare two sides of body w Check circulation - pulse, warmth of part, and capillary refill (greater than 2 seconds is abnormal)

18 Extremity Assessment - (cont) w Check the radial pulse - in the wrist w Check the pedal pulse - on the ankle or top of the foot for circulation

19 Head-to-Toe Exam-Spine and Back Assessment w Help victim to avoid excessive movement w Check sensation and strength in all extremities by having them press their foot against your hand w Spinal injury - may show paraplegia - paralysis in both legs w The stroke victim is likely to have hemiplegia - hemi (half), plegia (paralysis) w Paralysis of an arm or leg on the same side of the body

20 Putting it all Together w The assessment will be influenced by whether the victim is suffering from a medical problem or injury w Whether conscious or unconscious w Whether life- threatening conditions are present

21 Medical Alert Tag w May be worn as necklace or bracelet w Attracts attention in an emergency situation w Contain wearer’s medical problem and 24-hour phone # to call in case of emergency w Do not remove

22 CALL EMS w Give following info: w Victim’s location w Your phone # w What has happened w #of persons needing assistance w Condition of victim w What is being done w Always be last to hang up

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