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SILVER TRAINING DUKE OF EDINBURGH HILLARY AWARD. FIRST AID Make sure that at least one person on the trip has a current First Aid certificate Remember.

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Presentation on theme: "SILVER TRAINING DUKE OF EDINBURGH HILLARY AWARD. FIRST AID Make sure that at least one person on the trip has a current First Aid certificate Remember."— Presentation transcript:


2 FIRST AID Make sure that at least one person on the trip has a current First Aid certificate Remember Dr ABC D – Danger – make the area safe (for yourself, others, injured) R – Response – is the injured conscious? Can they respond? A – Airways – clear mouth, tilt head back, lift chin B – Breathing – chest rising and falling, sounds of breathing, breath on cheek C – Circulation – if not breathing, are there signs of life? Skin pale? What happens when you press the skin or fingernail? ke-outdoor-first_aid-kit.html HOW TO MAKE AN OUTDOOR FIRST AID KIT

3 FIRST AID – ROLES OF GROUP MEMBERS Leader – site management - safety of group and injured - delegates tasks to group members Most experienced First Aider – patient care and monitoring - may need an assistant - prioritise care if numerous injured An effective communicator – seeks help through radio transmission Everyone else – make shelter, food, drink etc

4 FIRST AID – SECONDARY SURVEY Check and record breathing and pulse Talk to patient and companions to obtain - history of accident - medical history Full examination to determine any further injuries Make sure you are wearing gloves

5 FIRST AID – LOOK AND FEEL FOR Bleeding Unusual colour Tenderness and bruising Lack of symmetry Loss of sensation Try to treat patient in the position in which they are found

6 FIRST AID – HEAD Inspect and gently palpate skull Check for lacerations, bleeding, depressions, bruising

7 FIRST AID – FACE Fluid from ears, nose, mouth Inspect eyes and check for pupil symmetry and reaction to light Look for any broken teeth Check skin colour, temperature, moisture Check for any obvious fracture of the jaw

8 FIRST AID – NECK Gently inspect and palpate for tenderness, deformities and rigidity


10 FIRST AID – CHEST Check for bruising Check for asymmetry of movement Gently palpate for tenderness and deformity

11 FIRST AID – BACK Check for muscle spasm along spine Look for bruises, injuries, entry or exit wounds Back injuries can be very serious, because the spinal cord is a vital nerve



14 FIRST AID – ABDOMEN Look for bruising, penetrating injuries Check for distension and masses Palpate (with warm hands) for rigidity

15 FIRST AID – PELVIS Palpate gently for tenderness and deformity

16 FIRST AID – EXTREMITIES Look for deformities Gently palpate for tenderness and deformities Check for bruising Check for regularity of pulse Check for strength and sensation Check for symmetry

17 FIRST AID – REMEMBER Warmth, comfort, reassurance Patient minder to watch and monitor them constantly Record keeping is essential – all significant events Monitoring – vital signs – breathing, pulse, temperature – every 30 minutes

18 FIRST AID – FOREIGN BODIES Bugs or plant matter in eyes, ears, nose Try not to inflame by prodding or rubbing EYES – wash out with clean water or pull top eyelid over bottom lid EARS and NOSE – do not stick anything in to try to dislodge object

19 FIRST AID – FRACTURES Excessive force can cause fractures - open – bone protrudes through skin blood loss and severe risk of infection - closed – skin is intact but there can still be severe internal bleeding - complicated – broken bone is at risk of injuring vital organs such as lungs - stress – abnormal movement causes stress to bone over time

20 FIRST AID – SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF FRACTURES A break or crack may be heard Intense pain Observable deformity Painful movement in that region Loss of strength in that region Tenderness when gentle pressure applied Swelling and bruising Visible bleeding with open fractures Grating sound as broken ends move against each other

21 FIRST AID – MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURES Do not test by moving bones against each other Assess severity of injury Determine course of action based on severity of injury Be aware of risk of infection of open wounds Donut of bandages / clothes to protect open wound from knocks Splint area if possible to avoid movement of fracture site Patient may be able to continue eg broken arm if properly supported If patient cant continue, seek help

22 FIRST AID – DIARRHOEA Unpleasant – especially in the bush Can be accompanied by dehydration, nausea and vomiting Steps to take to avoid diarrhoea: Remember personal hygiene when toileting and preparing food Use only treated water (do not drink directly from streams) Avoid eating left over food Wash dishes and utensils well Treatment for diarrhoea If available, take anti-diarrhoea medication Continue to drink sips of boiled water to avoid dehydration Electrolyte drinks are useful to maintain strength (May be carried with first aid kit) Bury all faecal wastes (including toilet paper) to avoid possible cross contamination.

23 FIRST AID – RECOVERY POSITION If a patient is unconscious or semi conscious and still breathing Check mouth for any obstructions Kneel down by patients chest Place one arm across the patients chest and the other at 90 o to their body Bend up the leg on the same side as the arm across the chest Gently roll the patient to their side Make sure the patient is stable and cannot move from this position Continue to monitor levels of consciousness. Must be placed on back if breathing stops – for resuscitation

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