Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Finding Out What’s Wrong. Victim Assessment Overview (1 of 2) Knowing what to do and what not to do is crucial during an emergency. A victim."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 Finding Out What’s Wrong
Victim Assessment Overview (1 of 2) Knowing what to do and what not to do is crucial during an emergency. A victim assessment is a sequence of actions that helps determine what is wrong. A primary check will determine if: there is illness or injury. whether the victim is responsive or unresponsive. if a life-threatening condition exists.
Victim Assessment Overview (2 of 2)
Assessment Steps Scene size-up Primary check Secondary check SAMPLE history Reassessment
Scene Size-Up Look for hazards. Notice the potential for violence. Be observant of weapons. Reduce exposure to potentially dangerous body substances. Determine whether the problem is an injury or an illness.
Primary Check (1 of 2) Identify life-threatening conditions so that you can immediately take action to treat the conditions. Responsiveness Circulation Breathing Severe bleeding
Primary Check (2 of 2) Form a first impression. Injury or illness? Responsive or unresponsive? Breathing adequately? Talking? Bleeding? Chance of exposure to blood or body fluids? Danger to you, victim, or bystanders?
Check Responsiveness Tap the victim on the shoulder and ask, “Are you okay?” Use the AVPU scale.
Alert Victim Evaluate ability to remember. What is your name? Do you know where you are? What are the month and year? What happened?
An Unresponsive Victim RAP-CAB (1 of 4) R = Responsive? Tap shoulder and shout, “Are you okay?” Courtesy of Berta A. Daniels, 2010
An Unresponsive Victim RAP-CAB (2 of 4) A = Activate emergency medical services (EMS) Courtesy of Berta A. Daniels, 2010
An Unresponsive Victim RAP-CAB (3 of 4) P = Position the victim on his or her back. C = Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Start with 30 chest compressions if the victim is not breathing. Courtesy of Berta A. Daniels, 2010
An Unresponsive Victim RAP-CAB (4 of 4) A = Airway Open the airway. B = Breaths Give two breaths and continue CPR. Courtesy of Berta A. Daniels, 2010
A Responsive Victim RAP-ABC R = Responsiveness A = Activate EMS P = Position A = Airway B = Breathing C = Circulation
Check for Breathing Chest movement Normal and abnormal breath sounds Feeling adequate air movement
Check for Severe Bleeding Check for a large amount of blood. Around the victim On the victim’s clothing Control bleeding. Wear exam gloves.
Position the Victim Most victims should not be moved. Exceptions: Unsafe location Victim is face down and needs CPR. Victim has difficulty breathing from vomit or secretions. First aider is alone and must leave to get help.
High Arm IN Endangered Spine (HAINES) (1 of 2) Keep left arm straight, extended above the head with upper part of the arm next to the head. Bring right arm across the chest. Place back of right hand against the left cheek and hold it there.
High Arm IN Endangered Spine (HAINES) (2 of 2) Bend the far leg at the knee and pull the bent leg to roll the victim toward you. Head stays on left arm while rolling. Right hand stabilizes the head. Right bent knee prevents rolling.
Left Side Advantages Keeps the airway open Delays vomiting Delays a poison’s effect Relieves pressure on a pregnant woman’s vena cava
Secondary Check (1 of 2) Determine whether the cause or mechanism of injury was significant. Assume a victim with a head injury also has a spinal injury.
Secondary Check (2 of 2) For a responsive victim: Ask if he or she can feel or wiggle the fingers and toes. For an unresponsive victim: Check spinal cord with Babinski reflex test.
Signs and Symptoms Signs See Feel Hear Smell Symptoms Things the victim feels Things the victim can describe Chief complaint