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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM II MAJOR ARTERIES AND VEINS.

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Presentation on theme: "CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM II MAJOR ARTERIES AND VEINS."— Presentation transcript:

1 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM II MAJOR ARTERIES AND VEINS

2 Dr. Vohra Right Atrium Left Ventricle Left Atrium Right Ventricle SVC IVC Aorta Pulmonary Veins (4) Pulmonary trunk Right AV valve Tricuspid Left AV valve Bicuspid 2

3 3 Blood Vessels Blood circulates inside the blood vessels, which form a closed transport system, the so-called vascular system. Dr. Vohra

4 4 Blood Circulation blood circulation.The blood flows in a circle, called the blood circulation. As the heart beats, blood is propelled into the large arteries leaving the heart. It then moves into successively smaller and smaller arteries and then into the arterioles. The arterioles feed the capillary beds in the tissues. The capillary beds are drained by venules. The venules empty into veins. The veins empty into the great veins (venae cavae) entering the heart. Dr. Vohra

5 5 By convention, in anatomy textbooks arteries are depicted in red and veins in blue. Red indicates oxygen-rich blood and blue indicates relatively oxygen-depleted, carbon dioxide-rich blood, the normal status of blood in most of the body's arteries and veins. However, there are exceptions to this convention in the pulmonary circulation.

6 GROSS ANATOMY OF BLOOD VESSELS

7 MAJOR ARTERIES OF THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION

8 Dr. Vohra8 AORTA The aortaThe aorta is the largest artery of the body. In adults, the aorta is about the size of a garden hose Different parts of the aorta are named for their location or shape. The aortaThe aorta is the largest artery of the body. In adults, the aorta is about the size of a garden hose Different parts of the aorta are named for their location or shape.

9 Dr. Vohra9 Ascending aorta,Ascending aorta, Arch of aortaArch of aorta Thoracic aortaThoracic aorta Abdominal aorta.Abdominal aorta. Ascending aorta,Ascending aorta, Arch of aortaArch of aorta Thoracic aortaThoracic aorta Abdominal aorta.Abdominal aorta.

10 Dr. Vohra10 BRANCHES OF THE ASCENDING AORTA Left & right coronary arteries supplying the heart

11 Dr. Vohra11 BRANCHES OF THE AORTIC ARCH 1.Brachiocephalic trunk 2.Left common carotid artery 3.Left subclavian artery

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13 Dr. Vohra13 BRANCHES OF THE SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY vertebral artery (right & left) axillary artery (right & left) brachial artery (right & left) radial artery (right & left) ulnar artery (right & left)

14 Dr. Vohra14 Arterial Branches of the Thoracic Aorta Theintercostal arteries(ten pairs) supply the muscles of the thorax wall.The intercostal arteries (ten pairs) supply the muscles of the thorax wall. Other branches of the thoracic aorta:Other branches of the thoracic aorta: (bronchial arteries), –supply the lungs (bronchial arteries), (esophageal arteries), –the esophagus (esophageal arteries), and (phrenic arteries). –the diaphragm (phrenic arteries).

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16 Dr. Vohra16 BRANCHES OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA celiac trunkceliac trunk (for the liver, stomach and spleen) superior mesenteric arterysuperior mesenteric artery (for the small intestine) renal arteriesrenal arteries (for the kidneys) gonadal arteriesgonadal arteries (for the testes or ovaries) inferior mesenteric arteryinferior mesenteric artery (for the large intestine) common iliac arteriescommon iliac arteries (for the pelvis and the lower limbs) celiac trunkceliac trunk (for the liver, stomach and spleen) superior mesenteric arterysuperior mesenteric artery (for the small intestine) renal arteriesrenal arteries (for the kidneys) gonadal arteriesgonadal arteries (for the testes or ovaries) inferior mesenteric arteryinferior mesenteric artery (for the large intestine) common iliac arteriescommon iliac arteries (for the pelvis and the lower limbs)

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18 Dr. Vohra Arterial Branches of the Abdominal Aorta The common iliac arteries are the final branches of the abdominal aorta. Each divides into an internal iliac artery, which supplies the pelvic organs (bladder, rectum, and so on), and an external iliac artery, which enters the thigh, where it becomes the femoral artery. The femoral artery and its branch, the deep femoral artery, serve the thigh. 18

19 Dr. Vohra At the knee, the femoral artery becomes the popliteal artery, which then splits into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries, which supply the leg and foot. The anterior tibial artery terminates in the dorsalis pedis artery, which supplies the dorsum of the foot. 19

20 20Dr. Vohra

21 MAJOR VEINS OF THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION

22 22 INTRODUCTION Veins draining the head and arms empty into the superior vena cava Draining the lower body empty into the inferior vena cava. Dr. Vohra

23 23 VEINS DRAINING INTO THE SUPERIOR VENA CAVA The radial and ulnar veins are deep veins draining the forearm. They unite to form the deep brachial vein, which drains the arm and empties into the axillary vein in the axillary region. DEEP VEINS

24 Dr. Vohra24 The cephalic vein provides for the superficial drainage of the lateral aspect of the arm and empties into the axillary vein. The basilic vein is a superficial vein that drains the medial aspect of the arm and empties into the brachial vein proximally. The basilic and cephalic veins are joined at the anterior aspect of the elbow by the median cubital vein. SUPERFICIAL VEINS

25 Dr. Vohra25 The subclavian vein receives venous blood from the arm through the axillary vein and from the skin and muscles of the head through the external jugular vein.The subclavian vein receives venous blood from the arm through the axillary vein and from the skin and muscles of the head through the external jugular vein. The internal jugular vein drains the dural sinuses of the brain.The internal jugular vein drains the dural sinuses of the brain. The subclavian vein receives venous blood from the arm through the axillary vein and from the skin and muscles of the head through the external jugular vein.The subclavian vein receives venous blood from the arm through the axillary vein and from the skin and muscles of the head through the external jugular vein. The internal jugular vein drains the dural sinuses of the brain.The internal jugular vein drains the dural sinuses of the brain.

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27 Veins Draining into the Inferior Vena Cava inferior vena cava, The inferior vena cava, which is much longer than the superior vena cava, returns blood to the heart from all body regions below the diaphragm. 27Dr. Vohra

28 28 The anterior and posterior tibial veins and the fibular vein drain the leg (calf and foot). The posterior tibial vein becomes the popliteal vein at the knee and then the femoral vein in the thigh. The femoral vein becomes the external iliac vein as it enters the pelvis.

29 Dr. Vohra29 The great saphenous veins are the longest veins in the body. They receive the superficial drainage of the leg. They begin at the dorsal venous arch in the foot and travel up the medial aspect of the leg to empty into the femoral vein in the thigh.

30 Dr. Vohra30 HEPATIC PORTAL CIRCULATION The veins of the hepatic portal circulation drain the digestive organs, spleen, and pancreas and deliver this blood to the liver through the hepatic portal vein.The veins of the hepatic portal circulation drain the digestive organs, spleen, and pancreas and deliver this blood to the liver through the hepatic portal vein. The liver is drained by the hepatic veins that enter the inferior vena cava.The liver is drained by the hepatic veins that enter the inferior vena cava. The veins of the hepatic portal circulation drain the digestive organs, spleen, and pancreas and deliver this blood to the liver through the hepatic portal vein.The veins of the hepatic portal circulation drain the digestive organs, spleen, and pancreas and deliver this blood to the liver through the hepatic portal vein. The liver is drained by the hepatic veins that enter the inferior vena cava.The liver is drained by the hepatic veins that enter the inferior vena cava.

31 Dr. Vohra31 PORTAL CIRCULATION The inferior mesenteric vein, draining the terminal part of the large intestine, drains into the splenic vein, which itself drains the spleen, pancreas, and the left side of the stomach.

32 Dr. Vohra32 splenic veinsuperior mesenteric vein The splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein (which drains the small intestine and the first part of the colon) join to form the hepatic portal vein.

33 Dr. Vohra33 The left gastric vein, which drains the right side of the stomach, drains directly into the hepatic portal vein.

34 Dr. Vohra34 Normally the pulse rate (pressure surges per minute) equals the heart rate (beats per minute). The pulse averages 70 to 76 beats per minute in a normal resting person. It is influenced by activity, postural changes, and emotions. You can feel a pulse in any artery lying close to the body surface by compressing the artery against firm tissue; this provides an easy way of counting heart rate. Because it is so accessible, the point where the radial artery surfaces at the wrist (the radial pulse) is routinely used to take a pulse measurement.

35 Dr. Vohra35 There are several clinically important arterial pulse points. pressure points.Because these same points are compressed to stop blood flow into distal tissues during hemorrhage, they are also called pressure points. To palpate each of the pulse points you should place the tips of your first two or three fingers of one hand over the artery at the site indicated. It helps to compress the artery firmly as you begin and then immediately ease up on your pressure slightly. In each case, notice the regularity of the pulse and its relative strength.

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