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Exercise 36 Blood vessels.

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Presentation on theme: "Exercise 36 Blood vessels."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exercise 36 Blood vessels

2 The wall of the blood vessels
Three distinct layers Tunica intima Lines the lumen Simple squamous epithelium endothelium and endocardium Tunica media Smooth muscle, collagen and elastic fibers Regulates the diameter of the blood vessels

3 The wall of the blood vessels
Tunica externa or adventitia Areolar or fibrous connective tissue Supports the vessel Protects the vessel

4 The wall of the blood vessels

5 Arteries Blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart and toward tissues. In the pulmonary circulation, pulmonary arteries conduct deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the systemic circulation, the aorta and its branches conduct oxygenated blood toward the systemic tissues

6 Arteries Small arteries are called arterioles. Arterioles conduct blood into a network of even smaller vessels, or capillaries.

7 Arteries Subject to pressure fluctuations Thick walls
Contain more smooth muscle and elastic tissues Narrower lumen than veins

8 Arteries Can be classified as: Elastic Closer to the heart
Large arteries More elastic fibers than smooth muscle

9 Arteries Muscular Farther from the heart Smaller arteries
More smooth muscle than elastic fibers

10 Veins Blood vessels that conduct blood toward the heart. In the pulmonary circulation, the pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood from the lungs. In the systemic circulation the vena cava returns deoxygenated blood from the rest of the systemic loop. Venules are small veins.

11 Veins Far from the heart Not subjected to pressure fluctuations
Thin walls Larger lumen than arteries Presence of valves Skeletal muscle pump

12 Veins

13 Arteries and veins

14 Aorta Ascending aorta – first portion Aortic arch
Descending aorta – within the thorax Abdominal aorta – within the abdomen

15 Aorta Ascending aorta Right and left coronary arteries originate from base of aortic sinus Aortic arch Brachiocephalic trunk – first branch Right common carotid Right subclavian Left common carotid – second branch Left subclavian – third branch

16 Aorta Descending aorta Thoracic and abdominal aortas

17 Head and neck Internal Carotid External carotid Vertebral
Basilar – formed by the fusion of the vertebral arteries

18 Head and neck

19 Head and neck Circle of Willis Posterior cerebral
Posterior communicating Middle cerebral Anterior cerebral Anterior communicating

20 Circle of Willis

21 Upper limb Axillary – continuation of the subclavian
Brachial – continuation of the axillary Ulnar – branch of the brachial Radial – branch of the brachial

22 Upper limb

23 thoracic and abdominal regions
Intercostals Celiac trunk – to stomach, spleen, and liver Superior mesenteric – to the small intestine and proximal large intestine Suprarenal – to the adrenals Renal – to the kidneys

24 thoracic and abdominal regions
Gonadals Testicular Ovarian Inferior mesenteric – to the distal large intestine Common iliac – branches from the inferior end of the abdominal aorta

25 thoracic and abdominal regions

26 Pelvis and lower limbs Internal iliac – to pelvic structures
External iliac- to the leg Femoral- to the thigh Popliteal – to popliteal region Anterior tibial – to the crural region Posterior tibial – to the sural region Fibular – to fibular region

27 Pelvis and lower limbs

28 Chapter 33 PART B

29 Veins – head and neck Brachiocephalic – into sup.vena cava
Subclavian – lateral branch of brachiocephalic Internal jugular – medial branch into the brachiocephalic vein External jugular – external vein of the neck that returns blood to the subclavian

30 Head and neck

31 Head and neck Sinuses – drain blood from the cranium Superior sagittal
Inferior sagittal sinus Transverse

32 Cranium

33 Upper limb and thorax Axillary – it is a continuation of the subclavian Basilic – medial and empties into the brachial Brachial – continuation of axillary Cephalic – lateral and empties into the axillary Medial cubital – connects basilic to cephalic

34 Upper limb and thorax Ulnar Median Radial
Azygos – unpaired branch into the sup. Vena cava. Drains the right side of the thorax. Hemiazygos, and accessory hemiazygos -2 sets of multiple veins that empty into the azygos and drain the left side of the thorax. Intercostals

35 Upper limb and thorax

36 Abdominal veins Hepatic Renal Gonadal – testicular or ovarian
Right side empties into inf. Vena cava Left side joins with left renal Common iliac – two branches that fuse to become inf. Vena cava

37 Hepatic portal system Portal circulation is a set of vessels that begins and ends with capillary networks. It returns blood from the digestive system to the liver From the liver the blood flows to the inf. Vena cava

38 Hepatic portal system Hepatic portal vein – going to the liver Liver
Hepatic vein - from the liver to inferior vena cava

39 Hepatic portal system

40 Lower limbs Internal iliac External iliac Femoral
Great saphenous – medial; into the femoral vein. Popliteal Small saphenous - lateral and posterior; into the popliteal.

41 Lower limbs Anterior tibial - branch into the popliteal
Posterior tibial – branch into the popliteal Fibular

42 Lower limbs

43 Vessels on the Cat Thoracic Cavity and Arm
Arteries Aorta Brachiocephalic trunk Common carotid- right and left Subclavian – right and left Axillary Brachial

44 Vessels on the Cat Thoracic Cavity and Arm
Veins Brachiocephalic trunks Jugular –internal and external Subclavian Brachial

45 Vessels on the Cat Abdominal Cavity and Leg
Arteries Abdominal aorta Celiac trunk Superior mesenteric Renal Inferior mesenteric Iliac – common, external and internal Femoral

46 Vessels on the Cat Abdominal Cavity and Leg
Veins Inferior vena cava Hepatic portal vein Renal Iliac – common, internal and external Great saphenous Femoral

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