2Systemic or general circulation The blood pumped out from the left ventricle is carried by the branches of the aorta around the body and is returned to the right atrium of the heart by the superior and inferior venae cavae.
4AortaIt begins at the upper part of the left ventricle and, after passing upwards for a short way, it arches backwards and to the left. It then descends behind the heart through the thoracic cavity a little to the left of the thoracic vertebrae. At the level of the D12 it passes behind the diaphragm then downwards in the abdominal cavity to the level of the L4, where it divides into the right and left common iliac arteries.
5Throughout its length the aorta gives off numerous branches Throughout its length the aorta gives off numerous branches. Some of the branches are paired, e.g. the right and left renal arteries, and some are single e.g. the coeliac artery.Thoracic aortaThis part of the aorta is above the diaphragm and is described in three parts:ascending aortaarch of the aortadescending aorta in the thorax.
6Arch of the aorta Three branches: brachiocephalic artery or trunk. left common carotid artery.left subclavian artery.The brachiocephalic artery is divides into the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery.
7Circulation of blood to the head and neck Arterial supplyThe paired arteries supplying the head and neck are the common carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries.Carotid arteries. The right common carotid artery is a branch of the ?. The left common carotid artery arises from ?.They pass upwards on either side of the neck and have the same distribution on each side. The common carotid arteries are devided into:Extennal carotid arteryinternal carotid artery
8External carotid artery supplies the superficial soft tissue structures of the head and neck. The internal carotid artery is a major contributor to the circulus arteriosus (circle of Willis) which supplies the greater part of the brain. It ascends to the base of the skull and passes through the carotid foramen in the temporal bone.
9(circle of Willis):two internal carotid arteries and two vertebral arteries.The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries, pass upwards through the foramina in the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae, enter the skull through the foramen magnum, then join to form the basilar artery.
10VENOUS DRAINAGE OF THE HEAD AND NECK Superficial structuresSuperficial veins external jugular vein
11Deep structures Dural (brain)venous sinuses Superior and inferior sagittal sinusesInternal jugular vein
13Circulation of blood to the upper limb Arterial supplyThe subclavian arteries. The right subclavian artery arises from ?. the left branches from ? axillary arteries brachial artery radial and ulnar arteries.
14Venous return from the upper limb The veins of the upper limb are divided into two groups: deep and superficial veins.The deep veins follows the course of the arteries and have the same names.Both systems end in the brachiocephalic veins on either side which join together forming SVC.
15Descending aorta in the thorax Starts as….?Then It extends downwards on the anterior surface of the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae to the level of the D12, where it continuous as abdominal aorta.The descending aorta in the thorax gives off many branches which supply the walls of the thoracic cavity and the organs within the cavity e.g. Bronchi, the lungs, oesophagus, intercostal muscles ….
16Venous return from the thoracic cavity Most of the venous blood from the organs in the thoracic cavity is drained into the azygos vein and the hemiazygos vein.both veins end in a way or another in the SVC.
17Abdominal aortaThe abdominal aorta is a continuation of the thoracic aorta.It descends in front of the bodies of the vertebrae to the level of L4, where it divides into the 2 CIA.Many branches arise from the abdominal aorta, some of which are paired and some unpaired.
18Paired branches: e.g.Renal , the suprarenal arteries.Testicular arteries supply the testes in the male.Ovarian arteries supply the ovaries in the female.Unpaired branches: e.g.The coeliac artery.gives 3 branches (splenic, hepatic, lt gastric)The superior mesenteric artery. Gives branches to small intestin and rt side of colon.The inferior mesenteric artery.gives branches to lt colon and rectum.
19Venous return from the abdominal organs The IVC is formed when right and left common iliac veins join at the level of L5.This is the largest vein in the body and it conveys blood from all parts of the body below the diaphragm to the right atrium of the heart. It passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm at the level of the 8th thoracic vertebra.Paired testicular, ovarian, renal and adrenal veins join the inferior vena cava.Blood from the remaining organs in the abdominal cavity passes through the liver via the portal circulation before entering the inferior vena cava.
20IVC Portal circulation PV hepatic veins 1st Capillary bed of digestive system, spleen, pancreasPVliverHepatic sinusoids 2nd capillary bedhepatic veinsIVC
21Portal circulationIn this way blood with a high concentration of nutrients absorbed from the stomach and intestines, goes to the liver first. In the liver certain modifications take place, including the regulation of nutrient supply to other parts of the body.
22Portal veinThis is formed by the union of these veins each of which drains blood from the area supplied by the corresponding artery.
23Circulation of blood to the pelvis and lower limb Arterial supplyCommon iliac arteriesThe right and left common iliac arteries are formed …?Then each one is divided into:internal iliac artery.external iliac artery.The internal iliac artery supply the organs within the pelvic cavity. largest branches is the uterine artery.The external iliac artery runs obliquely downwards into the thigh where it becomes the femoral artery.
25Venous returnThere are both deep and superficial veins in the lower limb. Blood entering the superficial veins passes to the deep veins through communicating veins.Movement of blood towards the heart is partly dependent on contraction of skeletal muscles. Backward flow is prevented by a large number of valves.
26Deep veins. The deep veins accompany the arteries and their branches and have the same names. The femoral vein → the external iliac vein + internal iliac vein →common iliac vein→ inferior vena cavaSuperficial veins:small saphenous vein joins the popliteal vein.great saphenous vein joins the femoral vein.Many communicating veins join the superficial veins and deep veins of the lower limb.