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Presentation on theme: "BLOOD VESSELS & CIRCULATION Anatomy & Physiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 BLOOD VESSELS & CIRCULATION Anatomy & Physiology

2 Circulation of Blood  left side heart  aorta  branches of aorta (arteries)  arterioles  capillaries  venules  veins  vena cava  right side of heart  pulmonary circulation  left side of heart

3 Arteries  any blood vessel carrying blood away from heart  designed to withstand higher pressure than veins  elastic: must swell to take up blood expelled by the heart  swelling stretches elastic tissue & keeps the blood pressure fairly high between heart beats  small arteries (arterioles)have muscles that control their diameters (precapillary sphincters): used to control blood flow thru an organ

4 cross-section of artery

5 Capillaries  where materials delivered to/from cells  blood  walls 1 squamous cell thick: so diffusion very fast  not elastic

6 Types of Capillaries

7 Veins  any blood vessel with blood flowing toward the heart  low pressure vessels  can expand to accommodate differing volumes of blood flow  contain valves to stop backflow of blood

8 cross-section of vein with valve

9 Comparing Arteries & Veins

10 Blood Flow  active organs like the liver, brain, kidneys have high blood rest  Kidney: ~25% of cardiac output  GI tract & liver: ~25%  Muscle rest: ~20%  Brain: ~ 15%

11 Adaptions for Exercise  during exercise: blood flow to active muscles greatly increases: up to 80% of cardiac output  Blood flow to skin increases or decreases to regulate body temperature

12 Questions?  What do you think happens to blood flow to your stomach during exercise?  What do you think happens to blood flow to your heart during exercise?

13 Blood Flow Through Organs  regulated by nerves & chemical agents  both cardiac output & blood vessel diameter controlled by hormones & nerves  controlled by ANS  increasing blood pressure can increase blood flow increasing blood pressure  increases cardiac output  constricts many arterioles  more blood volume to other organs

14 Pulmonary Circuit  circuit of blood vessels from heart  lungs  heart  rt ventricle of heart pumps blood thru pulmonary trunk  branches into rt & lt pulmonary arteries  smaller arterioles  capillaries that surround the alveoli (little air sacs) where oxygenation of RBCs & get rid of carbon dioxide

15 Pulmonary Circuit cont’d  from capillaries  venules which merge into larger & larger veins until they merge into the pulmonary veins: 2 pulmonary veins from each lung empty into lt atrium

16 Remember!  Pulmonary Trunk & Pulmonary Arteries carry deoxygenated blood to lungs  Pulmonary Veins carry oxygenated blood into left side of heart

17 Aorta  Ascending Aorta aortic semilunar valve  rt & lt coronary arteries supply rt & lt sides of heart  Aortic Arch 3 important branches: brachiocephalic trunk, lt common carotid, lt subclavian  Descending Aorta travels posterior to heart portion in thorax called thoracic aorta Portion in abdominal cavity called abdominal aorta


19 Common Carotids  branch into:  External Carotid arteries  supply blood to neck, esophagus, pharynx, larynx, lower jaw, face  Internal Carotid arteries  supply blood to the brain (with the rt & lt vertebral arteries: branches of subclavian arteries)

20 Arteries of Upper Extremities  Axillary artery:  branch of subclavian artery  becomes Brachial artery in the arm branches into Radial (pulse)& Ulnar arteries in lower arm

21 Branches of the Abdominal Aorta  descends slightly to the left of the vertebral column  retroperitoneal  Branches: 1. Celiac Trunk (3 branches)  Lt gastric artery: stomach  Splenic artery: spleen: stomach, & pancreas  Common Hepatic Artery: liver, stomach, gallbladder, & duodenum

22 Branches of the Abdominal Aorta 2. Superior Mesenteric Artery:  pancreas, duodenum, small intestines, most of large intestines 3. Inferior mesenteric Artery:  terminal portion of the colon, sigmoid colon, & rectum

23 Branches of the Abdominal Aorta

24 5 Paired Arteries from Abdominal Aorta 1. Inferior phrenic arteries  inferior surface of diaphragm 2. Suprarenal arteries  Adrenal glands 3. Renal arteries  kidneys 4. Gonadal arteries  Testicular or Ovarian 5. Lumbar arteries  vertebrae, spinal cord, abdominal wall


26 Iliac Arteries  Abdominal Aorta branches into rt & lt Common Iliac L4 level  each branches  internal & external iliac level of lumbosacral joint  Internal Iliac Arteries:  bladder, external genitalia, uterus, vagina  External Iliac Arteries:  blood to lower extremities

27 Iliac Arteries & Branches

28 External Iliac Arteries  when cross over to medial surface of thigh become Femoral Arteries  branches to deep femoral & superficial femoral  when reaches knee becomes Popliteal Artery  where it branches  posterior & anterior Tibial arteries  Posterior Tibial Artery divides  Medial & Plantar Arteries

29 Arteries of the Lower Extremities

30 Systemic Veins  Most veins run parallel to arteries of same name

31 Superior & Inferior Vena Cava  SVC: large vein that receives blood from upper body (head, neck, upper limbs)  IVC: large vein that receives blood from the lower body (lower limbs, pelvis, abdomen)  both return blood to right atrium


33 Systemic Veins  Internal Jugular descends parallel to common carotid arteries  brachiocephalic veins(just as they merge with the subclavian veins

34 Veins of the Upper Extremity  Radial & Ulnar veins parallel arteries of same name then merge to become Brachial vein  axillary vein  subclavian vein  Vein draw blood from: median cubital

35 Veins of the Abdomen & Pelvis  External Iliac veins receive blood from the lower extremities --> join with Internal Iliac veins to form the rt & lt Common Iliac Veins  fuses with the IVC

36 Veins of Abdomen & Pelvis

37 Hepatic Portal System  Blood leaving the digestive organs by veins is rich in nutrients….instead of returning directly to IVC  heart this blood is shunted to liver first  This way liver can store, convert, detoxify, or excrete materials as necessary  Hepatic Portal vein enters liver with nutrient rich blood



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