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Blood Vessels & Circulation Cardiovascular System - 2

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Presentation on theme: "Blood Vessels & Circulation Cardiovascular System - 2"— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood Vessels & Circulation Cardiovascular System - 2
for student copy

2 Circulation of Blood left side heart  aorta  branches of aorta (arteries)  arterioles  capillaries  venules  veins  vena cava  right side of heart  pulmonary circulation  left side of heart

3 Arteries any blood vessel carrying blood away from heart
designed to withstand higher pressure than veins elastic: must swell to take up blood expelled by the heart swelling stretches elastic tissue & keeps the blood pressure fairly high between heart beats small arteries (arterioles)have muscles that control their diameters (precapillary sphincters): used to control blood flow thru an organ

4 Capillaries where materials delivered to/from cells  blood
walls 1 squamous cell thick: so diffusion very fast not elastic

5 Types of Capillaries

6 Veins any blood vessel with blood flowing toward the heart
low pressure vessels can expand to accommodate differing volumes of blood flow contain valves to stop backflow of blood

7 cross-section of vein with valve

8 Comparing Arteries & Veins

9 Blood Flow active organs like the liver, brain, kidneys have high blood rest Kidney: ~25% of cardiac output GI tract & liver: ~25% Muscle rest: ~20% Brain: ~ 15%

10 Adaptions for Exercise
during exercise: blood flow to active muscles greatly increases: up to 80% of cardiac output Blood flow to skin increases or decreases to regulate body temperature

11 Blood Flow Through Organs
regulated by nerves & chemical agents both cardiac output & blood vessel diameter controlled by hormones & nerves controlled by ANS increasing blood pressure can increase blood flow increasing blood pressure  increases cardiac output  constricts many arterioles  more blood volume to other organs

12 Pulmonary Circuit circuit of blood vessels from heart  lungs heart
rt ventricle of heart pumps blood thru pulmonary trunk  branches into rt & lt pulmonary arteries  smaller arterioles  capillaries that surround the alveoli (little air sacs) where oxygenation of RBCs & get rid of carbon dioxide

13 Pulmonary Circuit cont’d
from capillaries  venules which merge into larger & larger veins until they merge into the pulmonary veins: 2 pulmonary veins from each lung empty into lt atrium

14 Aorta Ascending Aorta rt & lt coronary arteries Aortic Arch
aortic semilunar valve rt & lt coronary arteries supply rt & lt sides of heart Aortic Arch 3 important branches: brachiocephalic trunk, lt common carotid, lt subclavian Descending Aorta travels posterior to heart portion in thorax called thoracic aorta Portion in abdominal cavity called abdominal aorta


16 Common Carotids branch into: External Carotid arteries
supply blood to neck, esophagus, pharynx, larynx, lower jaw, face Internal Carotid arteries supply blood to the brain (with the rt & lt vertebral arteries: branches of subclavian arteries)

17 Arteries of Upper Extremities
Axillary artery: branch of subclavian artery becomes Brachial artery in the arm branches into Radial (pulse)& Ulnar arteries in lower arm

18 Branches of the Abdominal Aorta
descends slightly to the left of the vertebral column retroperitoneal Branches: Celiac Trunk (3 branches) Lt gastric artery: stomach Splenic artery: spleen: stomach, & pancreas Common Hepatic Artery: liver, stomach, gallbladder, & duodenum

19 Branches of the Abdominal Aorta
2. Superior Mesenteric Artery: pancreas, duodenum, small intestines, most of large intestines 3. Inferior mesenteric Artery: terminal portion of the colon, sigmoid colon, & rectum

20 Branches of the Abdominal Aorta

21 5 Paired Arteries from Abdominal Aorta
Inferior phrenic arteries inferior surface of diaphragm Suprarenal arteries Adrenal glands Renal arteries kidneys Gonadal arteries Testicular or Ovarian Lumbar arteries vertebrae, spinal cord, abdominal wall


23 Iliac Arteries Abdominal Aorta branches into rt & lt Common Iliac L4 level each branches  internal & external iliac level of lumbosacral joint Internal Iliac Arteries: bladder, external genitalia, uterus, vagina External Iliac Arteries: blood to lower extremities

24 External Iliac Arteries
when cross over to medial surface of thigh become Femoral Arteries branches to deep femoral & superficial femoral when reaches knee becomes Popliteal Artery where it branches  posterior & anterior Tibial arteries Posterior Tibial Artery divides  Medial & Plantar Arteries

25 Arteries of the Lower Extremities

26 Superior & Inferior Vena Cava
SVC: large vein that receives blood from upper body (head, neck, upper limbs) IVC: large vein that receives blood from the lower body (lower limbs, pelvis, abdomen) both return blood to right atrium

27 Systemic Veins Internal Jugular descends parallel to common carotid arteries  brachiocephalic veins(just as they merge with the subclavian veins

28 Veins of the Upper Extremity
Radial & Ulnar veins parallel arteries of same name then merge to become Brachial vein  axillary vein  subclavian vein Vein draw blood from: median cubital

29 Veins of the Abdomen & Pelvis
External Iliac veins receive blood from the lower extremities --> join with Internal Iliac veins to form the rt & lt Common Iliac Veins  fuses with the IVC

30 Hepatic Portal System Blood leaving the digestive organs by veins is rich in nutrients….instead of returning directly to IVC  heart this blood is shunted to liver first This way liver can store, convert, detoxify, or excrete materials as necessary Hepatic Portal vein enters liver with nutrient rich blood

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