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Blood Vessels & Circulation Cardiovascular System - 2 for student copy.

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Presentation on theme: "Blood Vessels & Circulation Cardiovascular System - 2 for student copy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood Vessels & Circulation Cardiovascular System - 2 for student copy

2 Circulation of Blood left side heart  aorta  branches of aorta (arteries)  arterioles  capillaries  venules  veins  vena cava  right side of heart  pulmonary circulation  left side of heart

3 Arteries any blood vessel carrying blood away from heart designed to withstand higher pressure than veins elastic: must swell to take up blood expelled by the heart swelling stretches elastic tissue & keeps the blood pressure fairly high between heart beats small arteries (arterioles)have muscles that control their diameters (precapillary sphincters): used to control blood flow thru an organ

4 Capillaries where materials delivered to/from cells  blood walls 1 squamous cell thick: so diffusion very fast not elastic

5 Types of Capillaries

6 Veins any blood vessel with blood flowing toward the heart low pressure vessels can expand to accommodate differing volumes of blood flow contain valves to stop backflow of blood

7 cross-section of vein with valve

8 Comparing Arteries & Veins

9 Blood Flow active organs like the liver, brain, kidneys have high blood rest Kidney: ~25% of cardiac output GI tract & liver: ~25% Muscle rest: ~20% Brain: ~ 15%

10 Adaptions for Exercise during exercise: blood flow to active muscles greatly increases: up to 80% of cardiac output Blood flow to skin increases or decreases to regulate body temperature

11 Blood Flow Through Organs regulated by nerves & chemical agents – both cardiac output & blood vessel diameter controlled by hormones & nerves – controlled by ANS increasing blood pressure can increase blood flow increasing blood pressure  increases cardiac output  constricts many arterioles  more blood volume to other organs

12 Pulmonary Circuit circuit of blood vessels from heart  lungs  heart rt ventricle of heart pumps blood thru pulmonary trunk  branches into rt & lt pulmonary arteries  smaller arterioles  capillaries that surround the alveoli (little air sacs) where oxygenation of RBCs & get rid of carbon dioxide

13 Pulmonary Circuit cont’d from capillaries  venules which merge into larger & larger veins until they merge into the pulmonary veins: 2 pulmonary veins from each lung empty into lt atrium

14 Aorta – Ascending Aorta aortic semilunar valve – rt & lt coronary arteries supply rt & lt sides of heart – Aortic Arch 3 important branches: brachiocephalic trunk, lt common carotid, lt subclavian – Descending Aorta travels posterior to heart – portion in thorax called thoracic aorta – Portion in abdominal cavity called abdominal aorta

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16 Common Carotids branch into: External Carotid arteries – supply blood to neck, esophagus, pharynx, larynx, lower jaw, face Internal Carotid arteries – supply blood to the brain (with the rt & lt vertebral arteries: branches of subclavian arteries)

17 Arteries of Upper Extremities Axillary artery: – branch of subclavian artery – becomes Brachial artery in the arm branches into Radial (pulse)& Ulnar arteries in lower arm

18 Branches of the Abdominal Aorta descends slightly to the left of the vertebral column retroperitoneal Branches: 1.Celiac Trunk (3 branches) – Lt gastric artery: stomach – Splenic artery: spleen: stomach, & pancreas – Common Hepatic Artery: liver, stomach, gallbladder, & duodenum

19 Branches of the Abdominal Aorta 2. Superior Mesenteric Artery: pancreas, duodenum, small intestines, most of large intestines 3. Inferior mesenteric Artery: terminal portion of the colon, sigmoid colon, & rectum

20 Branches of the Abdominal Aorta

21 5 Paired Arteries from Abdominal Aorta 1.Inferior phrenic arteries – inferior surface of diaphragm 2.Suprarenal arteries – Adrenal glands 3.Renal arteries – kidneys 4.Gonadal arteries – Testicular or Ovarian 5.Lumbar arteries – vertebrae, spinal cord, abdominal wall

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23 Iliac Arteries Abdominal Aorta branches into rt & lt Common Iliac L4 level each branches  internal & external iliac level of lumbosacral joint Internal Iliac Arteries: – bladder, external genitalia, uterus, vagina External Iliac Arteries: – blood to lower extremities

24 External Iliac Arteries when cross over to medial surface of thigh become Femoral Arteries – branches to deep femoral & superficial femoral when reaches knee becomes Popliteal Artery where it branches  posterior & anterior Tibial arteries Posterior Tibial Artery divides  Medial & Plantar Arteries

25 Arteries of the Lower Extremities

26 Superior & Inferior Vena Cava SVC: large vein that receives blood from upper body (head, neck, upper limbs) IVC: large vein that receives blood from the lower body (lower limbs, pelvis, abdomen) both return blood to right atrium

27 Systemic Veins Internal Jugular descends parallel to common carotid arteries  brachiocephalic veins(just as they merge with the subclavian veins

28 Veins of the Upper Extremity Radial & Ulnar veins parallel arteries of same name then merge to become Brachial vein  axillary vein  subclavian vein Vein draw blood from: median cubital

29 Veins of the Abdomen & Pelvis External Iliac veins receive blood from the lower extremities --> join with Internal Iliac veins to form the rt & lt Common Iliac Veins  fuses with the IVC

30 Hepatic Portal System Blood leaving the digestive organs by veins is rich in nutrients….instead of returning directly to IVC  heart this blood is shunted to liver first This way liver can store, convert, detoxify, or excrete materials as necessary Hepatic Portal vein enters liver with nutrient rich blood


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