2How did the US and the Soviet Union become Cold War Adversaries? There were many challenges related to the growing mistrust of the United States’ wartime ally, the Soviet Union.Just as there are many ways to respond to the hypothetical fight in the cafeteria, the United States could have responded to these foreign policy challenges in a variety of ways.
3On a blank piece of paper, create an organizer that looks like this Use the whole front of the page (you will need the room)N
4How do we control Nuclear Weapons? Based on this image, what do you think the first foreign policy challenge might be?World War II ended with the use of a massively destructive new weapon: the atomic bomb. In 1946, the United States is the only nation with this new nuclear technology. Several countries, including the Soviet Union, are working to develop their own nuclear capability.Choose an option from the next slide that you think will best address the problem of controlling nuclear weapons. Prepare to justify your choice with two or more reasons.How do we control Nuclear Weapons?
5How do we control Nuclear Weapons? Options:Option 1: Let other countries develop nuclear weapons—the United States can’t control what other countries doOption 2: Suggest a ban on any future bomb making with an exception that allows the United States to keep its nuclear weapons.How do we control Nuclear Weapons?Option 4: Bomb any country that is developing nuclear weapons so the United States remains the only one with the knowledge and ability.Option 3: Propose a plan to the United Nations in which the United States agrees to destroy its nuclear weapons and in which strict penalties will be imposed on any country found making nuclear bombs.
6How do we stop the spread of communism (in Greece)? Based on this image, what do you think the second foreign policy challenge might be?How do we stop the spread of communism (in Greece)?“Not long ago, an Iron Curtain descended on Europe, dividing the Soviet-controlled communist nations from the rest of the world. Now Greece is embroiled in a civil war. Communist rebels threaten to take over the country, and they may attempt to take over Greece next. Where will they stop?”
7How do we stop a Communist Take-over of Greece? Options:Option 1: Do nothing—the Soviet Union is not directly supporting communist rebels in Greece.Option 2: Give financial aid to the Greek government to boost the nation's economy and stop the spread of communism.How do we stop a Communist Take-over of Greece?Option 4: Take control of the Greek government to expel the communists and install a democracy.Option 3: Send troops to defeat the communists, and train the Greek military on how to keep order.
8How should the U.S. respond to Postwar conditions in Europe? Based on this image, what do you think the third foreign policy challenge might be?World War II left Europe devastated. Millions were dead, cities were destroyed, and homes were lost. Such destruction causes poverty and discontent, making the countries of Europe perfect breeding grounds for communist movements. Greece could be only the beginning.How should the U.S. respond to Postwar conditions in Europe?
9How should the U.S. respond to postwar conditions in Europe? Options:Option 1: Do nothing—we already spent a lot helping Europe during World War II.How should the U.S. respond to postwar conditions in Europe?Option 2: Supply loans on a case-by-case basis to European countries that have been longtime allies.Option 4: Send military troops and advisers to be in charge of postwar rebuilding in devastated European countries.Option 3: Generously fund any European country as long as the money is spent on goods made in the United States.
10Summarizing Questions What foreign policy challenges did the United States face after World War II?• Did the United States adequately respond to those challenges? Why or why not?How did those responses contribute to the tensions that resulted in the Cold War?
11United NationsApril 1945, representatives of 50 countries, including the United States, adopted the charter for the United Nations, an organization dedicated to cooperation in solving international problems.11
12On April 12, Roosevelt died unexpectedly, making Vice President Truman the new President Truman continued Roosevelt’s negotiations with Stalin at the Potsdam Conference in July.12
13Conflicting Postwar Goals American GoalsWanted Europe to experience the democracy and freedoms that the United States had fought for during the warWanted to develop strong capitalist economies, which would provide good markets for American products$$$Soviet GoalsWanted to rebuild Europe in ways that would help the Soviet Union recover from the huge losses it suffered during the warWanted to establish Soviet satellite nations, countries subject to Soviet domination and a buffer from the westWanted to promote the spread of communism throughout the world13
14Soviets Tighten Their Hold Communist Expansion in Eastern EuropeAlbania and BulgariaCzechoslovakiaHungaryRomaniaEast GermanyYugoslavia14
15Iron Curtain Speech 1946 Fulton Missouri Statement clearly describing existing situation“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent."15
16Truman DoctrineMarch 12, 1947Greece and Turkey in danger of falling to communist insurgentsTruman requested $400 million from Congress in aid to both countries.Success! The money helps the government prevent a communist takeover!16
17America develops a policy of containment Stop the spread of communism anywhere in the world.The Truman Doctrine, United States would support free peoples who resist attempted conquest..17
18Marshall Plan On June 5, U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall proposes a massive aid program to rebuild Europe from the ravages of World War II. (don’t make the same mistakes as WWI)Nearly $13 billion in U.S. aid was sent to Europe from 1948 to 1952.The Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe decline U.S. aid, citing "dollar enslavement."18
19Germany! Germany has been divided into 4 sections! British, French, American and SovietThey could “clean-up”No one country could take over
20Berlin!ALSO, the Capitol of Germany - Berlin, located in Communist East Germany, was divided into West Berlin (capitalist) and East Berlin (Communist).20
212.3 million tons of relief supplies. Berlin!In response, Allied nations began the Berlin airlift, which delivered thousands of tons of food and other supplies to West Berlin via air.Although the Soviet blockade ended in May 1949, Berlin remained a focal point of Cold War conflict.In June 1948, Stalin banned all shipments to West Berlin through East Germany, creating a blockade which threatened to cut off supplies to the city.2.3 million tons of relief supplies.21
23NATOSoviet vetoes prevent the U.N. from resolving many postwar problems – U.S. needs help defending against communismThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed in April 1949.the United States, Canada, and ten Western European nations pledged to support one another against attack, a principle known as collective security.In response, the Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance between the Soviet Union and its satellite nations.23
24Nuclear Destruction?In September 1949, the Soviet Union successfully tests an atomic bomb.In response, the United States began developing the even more powerful hydrogen bomb, reestablishing itself as the world’s leading nuclear power.The newly formed Federal Civil Defense Administration distributed information on how to survive a nuclear attack;24
26People’s Republic of China! Civil war breaks out in 1920s!During World War II, the two sides cooperate –The communists lead by Mao ZedongThe Nationalists lead by Chiang Kai-shekThey resume their fight near at the end of WWII.Guess which side the U.S. supports? (in spite of inept leaders and lots of corruption!)1949 – Creation of the PRC!26
28Chinese Civil War US REACTION! The most populous nation in the world is now communist!Who’s fault was it?Did we do enough?Was containment working?US REACTION!Refusal to acknowledge PRC as a legitimate nationcut off trade with ChinaConvinced U.N. to deny PRC admittance
29Uh…oh….Money didn’t work? How might the U.S. respond now?
30Domino TheoryThe belief that if one country fell to the communists it would bring about a chain reaction of other countries turning to communism.
32Korea!World War II ends with no plan for Korean independence from Japan.temporarily divided at the thirty-eighth parallel, the latitude line running through approximately the midpoint of the peninsula.A pro-American government formed in South Korea, while a Communist government formed in North Korea.32
33On June 25, North Korean communist forces cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea.
34the call for “Police Action” President Truman turns to the United Nations.15 nations join the UN forces, although the majority of soldiers come from the U.S.Aim: to create a “unified, independent and democratic Korea.”
35TIMELINE1949 – China became Communist – supported North Korea1950 – N Korea invaded S KoreaSept 1950 – UN troops into South Korea at INCHONN Koreans pushed back into North Korea
36THE KOREAN WARA grief stricken American infantryman whose buddy has been killed in action is comforted by another soldier. In the background a corpsman methodically fills out casualty tags, Haktong-ni area, Korea. August 28, Sfc. Al Chang. (Army)
37Desegregation of the Military After African-Americans fought for the Four Freedoms during World War II – they were denied rights at homeIf the U.S. wanted nations to follow their democratic example, it needed to rid itself of segregationExecutive Order 9981, signed on July 26, 1948, forbade discriminating against military personnel because of race, color, religion, or national origin.
38TIMELINEOct 1950 CHINA invades!UN troops pushed all the way back to S Korea– STALEMATE around 38th Parallel
45By 1950 had Containment worked??? Most Americans agreed with containing communismSome wanted a more aggressive policy like MacArthurPeople at home were very frightened by the spread of communism…
46The Cold War in the 1950sUnited States involvement around the world, 1947–1956Eastern Europe — Wary of war with the Soviets, America did not support uprisings in East Germany, Poland, and Hungary.Southeast Asia — Korean War ends; former French colony of Vietnam is divided into Communist North and anti-Communist South.Middle East — United States supports Israel, backs groups that restore a pro-American Shah in Iran; the Suez Crisis in Egypt erupts.Latin America — Organization of American States (OAS) is created; American aid helps anti-Communist leaders gain and retain power.46
47U.S. and U.S.S.R. compete in an nuclear arms race, a struggle to gain weapons superiority. Deterrence, the policy of maintaining a military arsenal so strong that no enemy will attack for fear of retaliation, resulted in the escalating development of powerful nuclear weapons.This is also known as MUTUALLY ASSURED DESTRUCTION! (MAD)
49The Arms RaceTo carry bombs to their targets, the Soviet Union developed long-range rockets known as intercontinental ballistic missiles, or ICBMs.In 1957, one of these rockets was used to launch the Soviet satellite Sputnik, the first artificial satellite to orbit Earth.Space Race to put weapons in space and to just show superiority!49