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Copyright 2010 Medieval Era 600-1450. Timeframe and Geographical Centers 600 – 1450 France Italy.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2010 Medieval Era 600-1450. Timeframe and Geographical Centers 600 – 1450 France Italy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2010 Medieval Era

2 Timeframe and Geographical Centers 600 – 1450 France Italy

3 Cultural Background Feudalism Roman Catholic Church People Events

4 Feudalism Political and military system King, Lords, Clerics, Peasants

5 Roman Catholic Church Pope, Archbishops, Bishops, Priests Served the King Owned land

6 People Gregory the Great –(540 – 604) –Pope –Organized the Roman Catholic Church including choosing a body of canonized chants Charlemagne –(742 – 814) –Holy Roman Emperor –Unified Western and Central Europe

7 William the Conqueror –(1028 – 1087) –King of Normandy –King of England Joan of Arc –(1412 – 1431) –Led the French army during the Hundred Years War –Martyred

8 Events Black Plague Hundred Years’ War Crusades Magna Carta

9 The Arts Architecture –Cathedrals Arches Flying butresses –Castles

10 Frescos and Painting

11 Sculpture and Illuminated Manuscripts

12 Literature and Writing Religous Writing –St. Thomas of Aquinas –Francis of Assisi Secular Writing –Beowulf (Old English) –Nibelungenlied (Germany) –Chanson de Roland (France) –Arthurian Cycles

13 Geoffrey Chaucer (1343 – 1400) Father of English literature Canterbury Tales

14 Alighieri Dante (1265 – 1321) Italian Poet Divine Comedy

15 Vocal Music Sacred chant –Texture: Monophonic –Rhythm: Unmetered –Harmony: Modal –Melody: Small range and mostly stepwise movements –Form: Could have utitlized a three-part form ( Holy Trinity) –Dynamics: Blocked or Terraced –Timbre: Vocal (male) –Sung in Latin Purpose: to serve in liturgy during the Mass

16 Mass Ordinary Texts: sung or spoken at every Mass –KyrieLord Have Mercy, Christ have Mercy, Lord Have Mercy –GloriaGlory to God in the highest –CredoI believe in God –SanctusHoly, Holy, Holy –Agnus DeiLamb of God Proper Texts –Differed according to the Christian Year

17 Hildegard von Bingen (1098 – 1179) Christian mystic German Benedictine Abbess “O Successores”

18 Perotin (c – 1240) Associated with Notre Dame in Paris “Alleluya”

19 Instrumental Music Associated with Dance Improvised, not written down Melody: Longer melodic ranges Rhythm: Metered rhythms Harmony: Modal Texture: Essentially monophonic Dynamics: Blocked or terraced Timbres: string, percussion, woodwind, brass Anonymous, “Estampie”

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21 Renaissance (1450 – 1600)

22 Meaning: Rebirth Timeframe: Geographic Center: Italy Cultural Background

23 Humanism Dominant philosophy Human dignity and humane values are foremost

24 Age of Discovery Christopher Columbus Magellan Sir Francis Drake Sir Walter Raleigh

25 Heliocentric Universe Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543) Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642)

26 Printing Press Bore witness to humanism Germany, around 1440 Johannes Gutenberg ( )

27 Protestant Reformation Wittenberg, Germany ( ) Martin Luther (1483 – 1586)

28 Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation A period of Catholic revival following the Protestant Reformation (1545 – 1648) Begins with the Council of Trent (1545 – 1563) Reforms include: church structure, religious orders and political dimensions

29 Visual Arts in the Renaissance Architecture Sculpture Painting

30 Architecture Return to Greek and Roman models –Round arch –Column –Dome Moved away from Gothic Style of Medieval Filipo Brunelleschi (Cathedral of Florence) Donato Bramante (St. Peter’s Basilica)

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32 Sculpture Realism, especially of the human form Movement Michelangelo Donatello Michelangelo – Pieta Sculpture

33 Painting Realism Depth Perspective Raphael Michelangelo da Vinci Raphael

34 Literature William Shakespeare 1564 – 1616 Poet and playwright Plays Sonnets

35 Music in the Renaissance Patronage System Instrumental/Vocal Genres

36 Musical Elements Melody Harmony Rhythm Texture Timbre Dynamics Form

37 Composers Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina ( ) Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass

38 Thomas Weelkes ( ) As Vesta Was From Latmos Hill Descending

39 Giovanni Gabrieli (1554/ ) Ricercare

40 The Baroque Era

41 Baroque Culture Definitions Portuguese for “irregularly- shaped” pearl Geographical Centers EnglandFranceGermany

42 The Times Science Sir Isaac NewtonGalileo GalileiRené Descartes

43 William Gilbert ( ) Properties of electricity Sir William Harvey ( ) Circulation of the blood Robert Boyle ( ) Chemistry

44 Politics – Age of Absolute Monarchs Charles II of England Frederick II of Prussia Louis XIV of France Phillip IV of Spain

45 Religion –Roman Catholic –Protestant –New Religions Deism –Influenced by the advances in scientific knowledge –Operated on reason alone without supernatural manifestations –Ethan Allen, Thomas Payne, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, James Madison

46 Visual Arts Architecture –In the Renaissance: simple, straight lines and detail Bramante – St. Peter’s CathedralBrunelleschi – Florence Cathedral

47 –In the Baroque: ornate, extravagant, showy St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican Palace of Versailles, Paris

48 Painting –Emotionally charged –Dramatic subjects –Contrast; play between light and shadow

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51 Peter Paul Rubens ( ) Rembrandt van Rijn ( )

52 Sculpture –Strong light and dark contrasts –Dramatic tension –Subjects are never still but moving, struggling, twisted Gian Lorenzo Bernini Self-Portrait Louis XIV

53 Age of Paradox/Contrasts Church ↔ State Monarchy ↔ Bourgeoisie Aristocracy ↔ Affluent Middle Class Importance of Religions ↔ Rise of Secular Scientific Research ↔ Superstition, Witchcraft Importance of humanity ↔ Religious Persecution

54 Music’s Response to Paradox/Contrast Vocal ↔ Instrumental 8 Church Modes ↔ Tonality (Major, minor) Sacred Music ↔ Secular Music Polyphonic Texture ↔ Homophonic Texture

55 The Composer’s Life Patronage System Church ↔ Court

56 Music of the Baroque Doctrine of Affections Elements of Music –Melody Long, instrumental in conception Use of sequences Monothematic Use of ornamentation

57 –Harmony Tonal Use of Major and minor scales –Rhythm Metric Motoric –Texture Homophony and Polyphony equal in importance (Late Baroque) Thorough Bass or Basso Continuo

58 –Form Binary Ternary Fugue Ritornello –Dynamics Terraced Not written into the score –Timbre Vocal Instrumental

59 Keyboard Instruments Pipe Organ Harpsichord

60 String Instruments Viol Family Lute

61 Woodwind Instruments Recorder Family Wood Flute

62 Brass Instruments Long Trumpet Trombones

63 Percussion Instruments Kettledrums

64 Vocal Genres Opera –Began as court entertainments in Italy –Includes a story (libretto), solo singing, choral singing, dancing, costumes and sets –Forms: recitative, aria, chorus Claudio Monteverdi ( ) Orfeo, 1607 Tu se’ morta

65 Cantata –Short, unstaged operas (secular and sacred) –Used operatic forms (recitative, aria, chorus) –Sacred cantatas often based on a chorale Johann Sebastian Bach ( ) Cantata 140: Wachet Auf, 1731 Awake, A Voice is Calling Us First Movement: Chorus and Orchestra

66 Oratorio –A sacred, large-scale opera –Always based on a biblical story –No staging or costumes –Larger role for the chorus –Uses opera forms (recitative, aria, chorus) George Frideric Handel ( ) Messiah, 1741 Recitative: The Voice of Him Aria: Every Valley Shall Be Exalted

67 Instrumental Genres Dance Suite –Originally a series of dances played for dancing –By the Baroque, suites became independent instrumental pieces no longer intended for dancing –Usually contained four dances –Often unified by key –Differed by tempo and international background –Used binary form J.S. Bach Suite No. 3 in D Major, Air Bourée Gigue

68 Sonata –Originally a “sound piece” for one instrument –Became a chamber music genre in the Baroque (from 2 to 6 players) –Four movements: fast, fast, slow, fast –Trio sonatas were popular Arcangelo Corelli ( ) Trio Sonata in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 10 (1689) First Movement

69 Concerto Grosso –“friendly contention” –Contrasts a larger ensemble (ripieno or tutti) with a solo group (concertino) –Three movements: fast, slow, fast –Often uses ritornello form Antonio Vivaldi ( ) Spring Concerto The Four Seasons, 1725 First Movement: Allegro Spring has come, and joyfully, The birds greet it with happy song. And the streams, fanned by gentle breezes, Flow along with a sweet murmur. Covering the sky with a black cloak, Thunder and lightning come to announce the season. When these have quieted down, the little birds Return to their enchanting song.

70 Ritornello Form

71 Keyboard Music –Organ and harpsichord –Often paired a “free” piece with a contrapuntal fugue [Prelude and Fugue] –Toccata: added elements of virtuosic “touch” keyboard technique J.S. Bach Fugue in g minor, BWV 578

72 J.S. Bach – Fugue in g minor, BWV 578

73 Composers Johann Sebastian Bach ( ) George Frideric Handel ( ) Antonio Vivaldi ( ) Henry Purcell ( )


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