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Medieval Era 600-1450 Copyright 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Medieval Era 600-1450 Copyright 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medieval Era Copyright 2010

2 Timeframe and Geographical Centers
600 – 1450 France Italy

3 Cultural Background Feudalism Roman Catholic Church People Events

4 Feudalism Political and military system King, Lords, Clerics, Peasants

5 Roman Catholic Church Pope, Archbishops, Bishops, Priests
Served the King Owned land

6 People Gregory the Great Charlemagne (540 – 604) Pope
Organized the Roman Catholic Church including choosing a body of canonized chants Charlemagne (742 – 814) Holy Roman Emperor Unified Western and Central Europe

7 William the Conqueror Joan of Arc (1028 – 1087) King of Normandy
King of England Joan of Arc (1412 – 1431) Led the French army during the Hundred Years War Martyred

8 Events Black Plague Hundred Years’ War Crusades Magna Carta

9 The Arts Architecture Cathedrals Arches Flying butresses Castles

10 Frescos and Painting

11 Sculpture and Illuminated Manuscripts

12 Literature and Writing
Religous Writing St. Thomas of Aquinas Francis of Assisi Secular Writing Beowulf (Old English) Nibelungenlied (Germany) Chanson de Roland (France) Arthurian Cycles

13 Geoffrey Chaucer (1343 – 1400) Father of English literature
Canterbury Tales

14 Alighieri Dante (1265 – 1321) Italian Poet Divine Comedy

15 Vocal Music Sacred chant Purpose: to serve in liturgy during the Mass
Texture: Monophonic Rhythm: Unmetered Harmony: Modal Melody: Small range and mostly stepwise movements Form: Could have utitlized a three-part form ( Holy Trinity) Dynamics: Blocked or Terraced Timbre: Vocal (male) Sung in Latin Purpose: to serve in liturgy during the Mass

16 Mass Ordinary Texts: sung or spoken at every Mass Proper Texts
Kyrie Lord Have Mercy, Christ have Mercy, Lord Have Mercy Gloria Glory to God in the highest Credo I believe in God Sanctus Holy, Holy, Holy Agnus Dei Lamb of God Proper Texts Differed according to the Christian Year

17 Hildegard von Bingen (1098 – 1179)
Christian mystic German Benedictine Abbess “O Successores”

18 Perotin (c. 1160 – 1240) Associated with Notre Dame in Paris

19 Instrumental Music Associated with Dance Improvised, not written down
Melody: Longer melodic ranges Rhythm: Metered rhythms Harmony: Modal Texture: Essentially monophonic Dynamics: Blocked or terraced Timbres: string, percussion, woodwind, brass Anonymous, “Estampie”


21 Renaissance (1450 – 1600)

22 Meaning: Rebirth Timeframe: Geographic Center: Italy Cultural Background

23 Humanism Dominant philosophy
Human dignity and humane values are foremost

24 Age of Discovery Christopher Columbus Magellan Sir Francis Drake
Sir Walter Raleigh

25 Heliocentric Universe
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543) Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642)

26 Printing Press Bore witness to humanism Germany, around 1440
Johannes Gutenberg ( )

27 Protestant Reformation
Wittenberg, Germany ( ) Martin Luther (1483 – 1586)

28 Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation
A period of Catholic revival following the Protestant Reformation (1545 – 1648) Begins with the Council of Trent (1545 – 1563) Reforms include: church structure, religious orders and political dimensions

29 Visual Arts in the Renaissance
Architecture Sculpture Painting

30 Architecture Return to Greek and Roman models
Round arch Column Dome Moved away from Gothic Style of Medieval Filipo Brunelleschi (Cathedral of Florence) Donato Bramante (St. Peter’s Basilica)


32 Sculpture Realism, especially of the human form Movement Michelangelo
Donatello Michelangelo – Pieta Sculpture

33 Painting Realism Depth Perspective Raphael Michelangelo da Vinci

34 Literature William Shakespeare 1564 – 1616 Poet and playwright Plays

35 Music in the Renaissance
Patronage System Instrumental/Vocal Genres

36 Musical Elements Melody Harmony Rhythm Texture Timbre Dynamics Form

37 Composers Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594)
Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass

38 Thomas Weelkes ( ) As Vesta Was From Latmos Hill Descending

39 Giovanni Gabrieli (1554/57-1612)

40 The Baroque Era

41 Baroque Culture Definitions Geographical Centers
Portuguese for “irregularly-shaped” pearl Geographical Centers England France Germany

42 The Times Science Sir Isaac Newton Galileo Galilei René Descartes

43 William Gilbert ( ) Properties of electricity Sir William Harvey ( ) Circulation of the blood Robert Boyle ( ) Chemistry

44 Politics – Age of Absolute Monarchs
Charles II of England Frederick II of Prussia Louis XIV of France Phillip IV of Spain

45 Religion Roman Catholic Protestant New Religions Deism
Influenced by the advances in scientific knowledge Operated on reason alone without supernatural manifestations Ethan Allen, Thomas Payne, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, James Madison

46 Visual Arts Architecture
In the Renaissance: simple, straight lines and detail Bramante – St. Peter’s Cathedral Brunelleschi – Florence Cathedral

47 In the Baroque: ornate, extravagant, showy
St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican Palace of Versailles, Paris

48 Painting Emotionally charged Dramatic subjects
Contrast; play between light and shadow



51 Peter Paul Rubens ( ) Rembrandt van Rijn ( )

52 Sculpture Strong light and dark contrasts Dramatic tension
Subjects are never still but moving, struggling, twisted Gian Lorenzo Bernini Self-Portrait Louis XIV

53 Age of Paradox/Contrasts
Church ↔ State Monarchy ↔ Bourgeoisie Aristocracy ↔ Affluent Middle Class Importance of Religions ↔ Rise of Secular Scientific Research ↔ Superstition, Witchcraft Importance of humanity ↔ Religious Persecution

54 Music’s Response to Paradox/Contrast
Vocal ↔ Instrumental 8 Church Modes ↔ Tonality (Major, minor) Sacred Music ↔ Secular Music Polyphonic Texture ↔ Homophonic Texture

55 The Composer’s Life Patronage System Church ↔ Court

56 Music of the Baroque Doctrine of Affections Elements of Music Melody
Long, instrumental in conception Use of sequences Monothematic Use of ornamentation

57 Harmony Rhythm Texture Tonal Use of Major and minor scales Metric
Motoric Texture Homophony and Polyphony equal in importance (Late Baroque) Thorough Bass or Basso Continuo

58 Form Dynamics Timbre Binary Ternary Fugue Ritornello Terraced
Not written into the score Timbre Vocal Instrumental

59 Keyboard Instruments Pipe Organ Harpsichord

60 String Instruments Lute Viol Family

61 Woodwind Instruments Wood Flute Recorder Family

62 Brass Instruments Long Trumpet Trombones

63 Percussion Instruments

64 Vocal Genres Opera Began as court entertainments in Italy
Includes a story (libretto), solo singing, choral singing, dancing, costumes and sets Forms: recitative, aria , chorus Orfeo, 1607 Tu se’ morta Claudio Monteverdi ( )

65 Cantata Short, unstaged operas (secular and sacred)
Used operatic forms (recitative, aria, chorus) Sacred cantatas often based on a chorale Cantata 140: Wachet Auf, 1731 Awake, A Voice is Calling Us First Movement: Chorus and Orchestra Johann Sebastian Bach ( )

66 George Frideric Handel
Oratorio A sacred, large-scale opera Always based on a biblical story No staging or costumes Larger role for the chorus Uses opera forms (recitative, aria, chorus) Messiah, 1741 Recitative: The Voice of Him Aria: Every Valley Shall Be Exalted George Frideric Handel ( )

67 Instrumental Genres Dance Suite Suite No. 3 in D Major, 1729-1731
Originally a series of dances played for dancing By the Baroque, suites became independent instrumental pieces no longer intended for dancing Usually contained four dances Often unified by key Differed by tempo and international background Used binary form Suite No. 3 in D Major, Air Bourée Gigue J.S. Bach

68 Sonata Originally a “sound piece” for one instrument
Became a chamber music genre in the Baroque (from 2 to 6 players) Four movements: fast, fast, slow, fast Trio sonatas were popular Trio Sonata in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 10 (1689) First Movement Arcangelo Corelli ( )

69 Concerto Grosso “friendly contention”
Contrasts a larger ensemble (ripieno or tutti) with a solo group (concertino) Three movements: fast, slow, fast Often uses ritornello form Spring Concerto The Four Seasons, 1725 First Movement: Allegro Spring has come, and joyfully, The birds greet it with happy song. And the streams, fanned by gentle breezes, Flow along with a sweet murmur. Covering the sky with a black cloak, Thunder and lightning come to announce the season. When these have quieted down, the little birds Return to their enchanting song. Antonio Vivaldi ( )

70 Ritornello Form

71 Keyboard Music Organ and harpsichord
Often paired a “free” piece with a contrapuntal fugue [Prelude and Fugue] Toccata: added elements of virtuosic “touch” keyboard technique Fugue in g minor, BWV 578 J.S. Bach

72 J.S. Bach – Fugue in g minor, BWV 578

73 Composers Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
George Frideric Handel ( ) Antonio Vivaldi ( ) Henry Purcell ( )

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