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Music History An Abbreviated History of Western Classical Music An Abbreviated History of Western Classical Music.

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Presentation on theme: "Music History An Abbreviated History of Western Classical Music An Abbreviated History of Western Classical Music."— Presentation transcript:

1 Music History An Abbreviated History of Western Classical Music An Abbreviated History of Western Classical Music

2 The Baroque Period  Grandiose  Elaborate  Ornate  Grandiose  Elaborate  Ornate The Baroque Age is frequently described as:

3 The Baroque Period  Architecture  Art  Furnishings  Fashion  Music  Architecture  Art  Furnishings  Fashion  Music

4 Baroque Architecture

5 Baroque Chair

6 Baroque Fashion

7 The Baroque Period  Formation of thirteen American colonies  Sir Isaac Newton  Sir Edmond Halley  Jonathan Swift “Gulliver’s Travels”  Formation of thirteen American colonies  Sir Isaac Newton  Sir Edmond Halley  Jonathan Swift “Gulliver’s Travels” What was going on in the World?

8 Ornamentation  Definition  As applied to Music  Trills, grace notes, turns, etc.

9 Musical Characteristics  More instrumental forms  Instruments refined  Modern names  Beginnings of Nationalism in Music  Church modes (chant) replaced by modern harmony (using chords)  Secular music gained importance  First use of dynamics  “terraced dynamics”  More instrumental forms  Instruments refined  Modern names  Beginnings of Nationalism in Music  Church modes (chant) replaced by modern harmony (using chords)  Secular music gained importance  First use of dynamics  “terraced dynamics”

10 Important Instruments  Organ  Harpsichord  Violin, viola, and ‘cello replace viols  Organ  Harpsichord  Violin, viola, and ‘cello replace viols

11 Pipe Organ

12 Organ Pipes

13 Harpsichord

14 Harpsichord Mechanism

15 Important Instruments  Woodwinds  Flute, oboe, bassoon  Brass  Valveless trumpets and horns, trombone  Percussion  Timpani the only percussion instrument used in serious music  Woodwinds  Flute, oboe, bassoon  Brass  Valveless trumpets and horns, trombone  Percussion  Timpani the only percussion instrument used in serious music

16 Baroque Flute

17 Oboe and Bassoon

18 Baroque Trumpet

19 Baroque Horns

20 Baroque Timpani

21 How Did Composers Make Money?  Patronage System  Commissions  Patronage System  Commissions

22 Musical Forms  Toccata  A free form composition to demonstrate technical agility  Primarily a keyboard form  Often improvised  Toccata  A free form composition to demonstrate technical agility  Primarily a keyboard form  Often improvised

23 Musical Forms  Fugue  Extended work using counterpoint (polyphony)  Uses a short, recurring melody (called the “subject”)  Can be written for keyboard, voices, or any combination of instruments  Fugue  Extended work using counterpoint (polyphony)  Uses a short, recurring melody (called the “subject”)  Can be written for keyboard, voices, or any combination of instruments

24 Musical Forms Toccatas and fugues were often combined in one composition The Prelude was another keyboard form often used to introduce a fugue Toccatas and fugues were often combined in one composition The Prelude was another keyboard form often used to introduce a fugue

25 “Toccata and Fugue in d minor” By J.S. Bach “Toccata and Fugue in d minor” By J.S. Bach

26 Musical Forms Baroque Sonata An extended work with three separate movements 1. Allegro 2. Andante 3. Allegro Baroque Sonata An extended work with three separate movements 1. Allegro 2. Andante 3. Allegro

27 Musical Forms Different types of sonatas  Keyboard sonata (for solo keyboard)  Solo sonata (a sonata for solo instrument with keyboard accompaniment)  Concerto (a sonata for solo instrument with orchestra accompaniment)  Concerto Grosso (a sonata for a group of solo instruments)  Keyboard sonata (for solo keyboard)  Solo sonata (a sonata for solo instrument with keyboard accompaniment)  Concerto (a sonata for solo instrument with orchestra accompaniment)  Concerto Grosso (a sonata for a group of solo instruments)

28 Brandenburg Concerto #5 First Movement By J.S. Bach Brandenburg Concerto #5 First Movement By J.S. Bach

29 Brandenburg Concerto #5 First Movement By J.S. Bach Brandenburg Concerto #5 First Movement By J.S. Bach Instruments used:  Violin  Flute  Harpsichord  ‘cello Chamber music Instrumental music designed to be played in an informal setting.

30 Basso Continuo* * Thorough bass  Used to fill out harmonies  Not unlike a rhythm section in a jazz band  Harpsichord and bass instrument* *’cello or bassoon  Used to fill out harmonies  Not unlike a rhythm section in a jazz band  Harpsichord and bass instrument* *’cello or bassoon

31 “Concerto for Two Trumpets in C” First Movement By Vivaldi “Concerto for Two Trumpets in C” First Movement By Vivaldi Excellent example of “terraced” dynamics

32 Musical Forms Baroque Suite A collection of dance movements  Minuet (moderate 3/4 time)  Gavotte (moderate 4/4 time)  Bourée (4/4 time)  Gigue (fast 6/8 time)  Hornpipe (3/4 time) Baroque Suite A collection of dance movements  Minuet (moderate 3/4 time)  Gavotte (moderate 4/4 time)  Bourée (4/4 time)  Gigue (fast 6/8 time)  Hornpipe (3/4 time)

33 “Water Music Suite” “Hornpipe” By G.F. Handel “Water Music Suite” “Hornpipe” By G.F. Handel Another example of “terraced” dynamics

34 Musical Forms Baroque Opera What is an opera? A play that is sung Baroque Opera What is an opera? A play that is sung

35 Elements of a Play  Plot (conflict, resolution)  Characters (Hero, antagonist)  Dialogue  Monologue  Plot (conflict, resolution)  Characters (Hero, antagonist)  Dialogue  Monologue

36 Staging Elements of a Play  Blocking (placing and movement of the actors)  Scenery  Costumes  Lighting  Choreography (dance or coordinated movements)  Blocking (placing and movement of the actors)  Scenery  Costumes  Lighting  Choreography (dance or coordinated movements)

37 Elements of an Opera*  Staging elements like a play  Musical elements  Aria (song)  Recitative (dialogue that is sung)  Chorus (group singing)  Ballet (group dancing)  Overture (a musical introduction to the opera played by the orchestra)  Staging elements like a play  Musical elements  Aria (song)  Recitative (dialogue that is sung)  Chorus (group singing)  Ballet (group dancing)  Overture (a musical introduction to the opera played by the orchestra) * Usually secular in theme

38 First Opera “Orfeo” by Claudio Monteverdi The story of Orpheus and Eurydice Taken from Greek mythology

39 Orpheus and Eurydice

40 Musical Form Oratorio  An opera without the staging elements*  Frequently sacred in theme Oratorio  An opera without the staging elements*  Frequently sacred in theme *Why?

41 “Messiah” an oratorio by G.F. Handel “Halleluia Chorus”

42 Baroque Orchestra  violins  violas  1 ‘cello  1 double bass  flute, oboe, bassoon (1 each)  trumpets  French horn  Timpani  Harpsichord (continuo)  violins  violas  1 ‘cello  1 double bass  flute, oboe, bassoon (1 each)  trumpets  French horn  Timpani  Harpsichord (continuo)

43 “Messiah” In Handel’s Own Hand

44

45 Baroque Orchestra

46 “Canon in D” by Pachelbel A “canon” is like a “round” Pachelbel’s Canon is not really a canon at all, it’s a “passacaglia,” a form with a repetitive bass line

47 The Baroque period lasted 150 years and saw the creation of some of the most enduring music in history, as well as one of the best known composers of all time, J.S. Bach.

48 The End


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