Presentation on theme: "The Baroque era (c. 1600-1750) An era of new ideas and innovations in the arts, literature and philosophy Italy led the way in new ideas and fashion Baroque."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Baroque era (c )An era of new ideas and innovations in the arts, literature and philosophyItaly led the way in new ideas and fashionBaroque comes from Barocco = Portuguese for ‘pearl’Most famous baroque composers were
2 George Frideric Handel Born in Germany in 1685Devoted his life to music at age 18.Famous pieces include ‘Water Music’, Music for the Royal Fireworks’ and ‘Messiah.Went blind towards the end of his life and died in England in Buried in Westminster Abbey, London.
3 Handel’s ‘Messiah’ is an ‘Oratorio’? Musical work based on words and stories from the bibleUses operatic forms such as recitative, chorus and aria and, originally, was acted out with scenery and full costumeSimilar to opera but only used texts for the story that were taken from the bibleBy the time of Handel, the ‘acting’ element to the oratorio had ceased.
4 Messiah Most well-known of all the oratorios Libretto (story/words) is in three main parts – telling the story of the birth, death and resurrection of Jesus ChristPart 1 – prophecies tell of the coming of the Messiah; story of Jesus’ birthPart 2 – ‘passion’ music of the suffering and crucifixion of JesusPart 3 – tells of Jesus’ resurrection from the dead
5 Background to Messiah Composed in 1741 in just 24 days Until 1741 Italian operas were very popular but these became less popular – the idea of sacred opera in English proved to be a popular substitute.The church forbade biblical stories to be acted out in the theatre so they were performed in concert performances instead.
6 Features of Baroque music Ornamented melodic partsMajor/minor key system (replaced modes)Use of Diatonic chords of I, IV, V, II and VIBasso continuo (continuous bass)Variety of musical textures, such as monophonic, homophonic and polyphonicBaroque orchestra – strings, harpsichord, trumpets, horns and drums. Various woodwind instruments, but not standardized.Prevalence of one moodContrasting dynamics: Loud/Soft
7 Styles of music found in an Oratorio Recitative – sung by a solo singer - the basic idea is to get the words of the narration over with a minimum use of music. Accompanied by just a few instruments.Aria – a solo song with instrumental accompaniment. The music is more elaborate than in the recitative to display the vocal qualities and expertise of the singer.Chorus – performed by a choir - sums up the action so far at that point in the drama
8 Title: And the Glory of the Lord’ by G.F. Handel
9 Handel uses 4 contrasting musical ideas One for each line of text COPYHandel uses 4 contrasting musical ideas One for each line of textAnd the Glory of the Lordshall be revealedand all flesh shall see it together,for the mouth of the Lord has spoken it.
10 COPY 1. ‘And the Glory of the Lord’ 2. ‘shall be revealed’ Syllabic = one note per syllableFirst 3 notes outline triad of A majorStepwise scale ending2. ‘shall be revealed’Melismatic = several notes per syllableUse of two descending sequences3. ‘and all flesh shall see it together’Repetitive idea (3 statements of a descending pattern)4. ‘for the mouth of the Lord has spoken it’.Long, repeated notesCOPY
11 COPY Sung by a choir (SATB) S = Soprano High female voices A = Alto Low female voicesT = Tenor High male voicesB = Bass Low male voices
12 Instruments in ‘And the Glory of The Lord’ COPYInstruments in ‘And the Glory of The Lord’Violins 1Violins 2ViolasContinuo bass (‘cellos, doubles bass, harpsichord)The orchestra would probably been quite small – about 16 players altogether.
13 COPY General Points Tempo -The chorus is marked allegro (fast) Time signature - The chorus is in 3/4 timeThe lively triple time dance tempo gives a feeling of ‘One in a bar’Key signature -The home key is A majorDynamics - The music is quite loud throughout
14 Summary of main choral styles ExampleSingle-line writing (monophonic)Bars 11-13Four-part choir(homophonic)Bars 33 (beat 3) - 38Simple imitationBars 17 (beat 3) onwardsTwo ideas togetherBarsDoubling of partsBar 51 onwards ‘for the mouth’
15 Copy out the Summary table (p15) Answer questions 1-9 in full sentences. (p15)