2 Baroque Historical Highlights Age of Absolutism; Kings and Queens are all-powerfulKnown for extreme decadence and extravagance of aristocracy (e.g. Louis XIV and his palace of Versailles)Church Splits in Two; Europe split into Catholic countries (Italy, France, Spain) and Protestant countries (England, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden)
5 The King’s Bedroom, Marie Antoinette’s Room, The Opera House
6 “Baroque” DefinedBaroque means exaggerated or over-ornamented; these adjectives relate to music and visual artsBaroque period, era in the history of the Western arts roughly coinciding with the 17th century. Its earliest manifestations, which occurred in Italy, date from the latter decades of the 16th century, while in some regions, notably Germany and colonial South America, certain of its culminating achievements did not occur until the 18th century. The work that distinguishes the Baroque period is stylistically complex, even contradictory. In general, however, the desire to evoke emotional states by appealing to the senses, often in dramatic ways, underlies its manifestations. Some of the qualities most frequently associated with the Baroque are grandeur, sensuous richness, drama, vitality, movement, tension, emotional exuberance, and a tendency to blur distinctions between the various arts.A term used in the literature of the arts with both historical and critical meanings and as both an adjective and a noun. The word has a long, complex and controversial history (it possibly derived from a Portuguese word for a misshapen pearl, and until the late 19th century it was used mainly as a synonym for `absurd' or `grotesque'), but in English it is now current with three principal meanings.
7 Bernini, Baldacchino (altar canopy) of St Bernini, Baldacchino (altar canopy) of St. Peters Gilt bronze, Height approx. 100 ft.
11 Baroque Artistic Highlights Emphasis on DRAMA (extreme and heightened emotion) in music and visual artsCaravaggio’s paintings show this emphasis on DRAMA
12 Judith Beheading Holofernes Artemisia Gentilleschi - Student of Caravaggioc. 1598; Oil on canvas, 56 3/4 x 76 3/4 in; Galleria Nazionale dell'Arte Antica, Rome
13 CARAVAGGIO, Michelangelo Merisi da The Crucifixion of Saint Peter Oil on canvas 90 1/2 x 70 in. Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popola, Rome
14 Baroque Musical Highlights Birth of OPERA - theatrical presentations with music and elaborate stage spectacleNew focus on instrumental music and instrumental accompaniment to voicesNew emphasis on chords and use of BASSO CONTINUO
15 Baroque Music Style Characteristics Timbrenew emphasis on instrumental music & instrumental accompaniment to voicesRhythmbeat is emphasized; lots of forward motionMelodyelaborate, ornamented, continuously expanding, long and windingFormone main theme repeated over and overDynamicssudden changes from loud to soft and soft to loud called terraced dynamicsTexturemore rapid changes in texture (homophony, imitative polyphony) throughout a single movement or piece of musicHarmonynew emphasis on chords; orchestra mainly consists of strings and basso continuo (bass melody instrument like cello or bassoon + chord generating instrument harpsichord, organ, or lute)Moodthe same mood throughout movement; this heightened emotional state called affect (vocal music is exception; vocal music has many changes of mood, but closely follows text)
16 Baroque Music Genres Vocal Music Genres Instrumental Music Genres OperaOratorioCantataInstrumental Music GenresChamber MusicConcerto Grosso
17 Opera Sung theatrical work Staged with costumes and sets Example: HENRY PURCELL "Dido's Lament" from Dido and Aeneas CD#1/69-70
19 HENRY PURCELL "Dido's Lament" from Dido and Aeneas Aria vs. Recitative
20 Aria Song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment usually expressing an emotional state through its outpouring of melodyfound in operas, oratorios, and cantatas
21 RecitativeVocal line in opera, oratorio, or cantata that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech, often serving to lead into an aria
22 Libretto Librettist Text of an opera Dramatist who writes the libretto, or text, or an opera
23 HENRY PURCELL "Dido's Lament" from Dido and Aeneas Listen for Basso continuo in Recitative
24 Basso Continuo (‘continuous bass’) Baroque accompaniment made up of a bass part usually played by two instruments:A keyboard (or other chord-making instrument, such as a lute or organ), andA low melodic instrument (such as cello or a basson)
25 HENRY PURCELL "Dido's Lament" from Dido and Aeneas Aria built on Ground bass
26 Ground Bass (basso ostinato) A repeating bass lineThis one has dark-sounding harmony and is descending in pitchVariation form in which a musical idea in the bass is repeated over and over while the melodies above it constantly changeCommon in Baroque music
27 Dido’s Lament from Dido and Aeneas Dido sings:Thy hand, Belinda, darkness shades me,On thy bosom let me rest;More I would be death invades me;Death is now a welcome guest.
28 Dido’s Lament from Dido and Aeneas When I am laid, am laid in earth, may my wrongs createNo trouble in thy breast.Remember me! But ah! Forget my fate.
29 Oratorio Like opera, but unstaged Uses a religious story Example: GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL’s Messiah"Hallelujah" CD#2/11-16"Ev'ry Valley Shall Be Exalted" CD#2/10
31 G.F. Handel’s “Ev’ry Valley Shall Be Exalted” from The Messiah Listen forTerraced dynamicsEmphasis of beatOrnamented melodyContinuous affectWord painting
32 Terraced DynamicsAbrupt alternation between loud and soft dynamic levelsCharacteristic of Baroque MusicNot found in Medieval or Renaissance Music
33 Affections /Affect p.95 of text The expression of one basic mood in Baroque musicSpecific rhythms or melodic patterns were associated with specific moodsNot characteristic of OPERA, but found in oratorio and cantatas
34 G.F. Handel’s “Ev’ry Valley Shall Be Exalted” from The Messiah (text painting highlighted in blue and purple)Ev’ry valley shall be exalted, and ev’ry mountain and hill made low,The crooked straight, and the rough places plain.
35 GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL’s "Hallelujah” Chorus from Messiah Listen forChanges in textureHymn-like HomophonyImitative PolyphonyPedal PointEmphasis of beat
36 Cantata Like opera, but unstaged, with religious text Performed ONLY in churchesExamples: J.S. BACH Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Sleepers Awake) Mvt. 4 [Tenor Chorale] CD#1/71-73 & Mvt. 7 [Chorale] CD#1/74-75
37 ChoraleHymn tune sung to a German religious text
39 J.S. BACH Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Sleepers Awake) Mvt. 7 [Chorale]Listen forHymn-like homophonyComplete and incomplete cadencesMvt. 4 [Tenor Chorale]Listen forOrnamented melodyContinuous affect
40 Chamber MusicUses a small group of musicians, with one player to a partMeant for smaller, more intimate performance venuesIncludes music for solo instrumentsJ.S. Bach’s Organ Fugue in G Minor “The Little”
41 FuguePolyphonic composition based on one main theme, or subject
42 J.S. BACH Organ Fugue in G Minor (The "Little") Fugue form (features imitative polyphony)Subject (Main Theme) stated in different “voices” during ExpositionExposition followed by alternating Episodes (non-imitative) and Subject Entries (imitative)Countersubject - countermelody that accompanies Subject in Exposition & Subject EntriesPicardy Third
44 Concerto GrossoComposition for several instrumental soloists and small orchestracommon in late Baroque music
45 Concerto GrossoRitornello form - Ritornello (a homphonic or polyphonic block of music) alternating with Episodes (contrasting melodic, softer dynamics, virtuosic scales and arpeggios)Tutti vs. Soli groups
46 TuttiIn Italian, “all”The full orchestra, or a large group of musicians contrasted with a smaller groupOften heard in Baroque music
47 Solo, Soli In Italian, “one” or “ones” The individual instrument or vocalist featured or a small group of individual musicianss contrasted with a larger groupOften heard in Baroque music
49 Examples of Baroque Concerto Grosso J.S. BachBrandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D MajorMovement 1Antonio VivaldiConcerto for Violin and String Orchestra, Op. 8, No. 1, La Primavera [Spring]from The Four Seasons
50 Bach Brandenburg Soli - EPISODE Tutti group - RITORNELLO Flute Violin HarpsichordTutti group - RITORNELLOFull orchestra - string and basso continuo