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The Moors & Spain. The People of the Iberian Peninsula  Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.  The people that have lived in Spain.

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Presentation on theme: "The Moors & Spain. The People of the Iberian Peninsula  Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.  The people that have lived in Spain."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Moors & Spain

2 The People of the Iberian Peninsula  Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.  The people that have lived in Spain include the Basques, Celts, Phoenicians, Goths, Visigoths, Berbers, Jews, and Hispano-Romans (ancestors of today’s Spaniards).  During Roman times the native inhabitants of north Africa (Berbers) were called Mauri. By the 4th century AD, the Roman army heavily recruited Moors for their exceptional skill in battle.

3 The Visigoths  The Visigoths ruled Spain from 408 – 711 AD.  In the seventh century A.D., invading Arabs conquered the Berbers & converted them to Islam. The mixed Arab-Berber population continued to be called Mauri, or Moors, in Europe.  The Moors may have been invited by the Hispano-Romans who didn’t like the rule of the Visigoths.  The Visigoths died off as a distinctive ethnic group.

4 The Moors  The origin of the English term, "Moor" is the Greek word, "μαυρο" or "mavro" which literally means "black.” They are an ethnic mix of the native Berbers & Arabs.  They came from north Africa, across the Pillars of Hercules, which they renamed the Straights of Gibraltar (after a Muslim general). They conquered all of the Iberian Peninsula except for Asturias & Galicia (northern Spain).  They ruled Spain for over 700 years.  Their capital was Cordoba. The Iberian peninsula was called the Caliphate of Cordoba.

5 The Moors  The Moors allowed for religion freedom. However, Jews & Christians were required to pay a special tax for being infidels (non-Muslims).  In Spain today, especially in Andalusia (southern Spain), the presence of Moorish culture can still be seen on every corner.

6 The Moors  The Moors further developed agriculture, & in particular, irrigation, by channeling water to where it was needed (many of these systems are still in use today).  They introduced produce from Asia which were unknown. Many of these are basic ingredients in today’s Spanish cuisine & include spices & produce such as saffron, apricots, artichokes, pomegranates, carob, sugar, grapefruits, carrots, coriander & rice.

7 The Moors  Salt crusted baked fish have been show to come from the Islamic world.  When it came to preserving food, especially fish and vegetables, it would be mixed with salt or the item soaked in vinegar for a long time.  The introduction of almonds revolutionized pastry making.

8 The Moors  The most significant Moorish musician was known as Ziryab (the Blackbird) who arrived in Spain in 822. The Moors introduced the earliest versions of several instruments, including the Lute, the guitar or kithara & the Lyre.

9 The Moors  Scientific progress in astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, geography & philosophy flourished in Moorish Spain.  They brought back the lost knowledge of the ancient Greeks & Romans, notably Aristotle.  At that time, Europe had only two universities, the Moors had seventeen great universities. These were located in Almeria, Cordova, Granada, Juen, Malaga, Seville, and Toledo.

10 The Moors  In the 10 th & 11 th centuries, public libraries in Europe were non- existent, while Moorish Spain could boast of more than seventy, of which the one in Cordova housed 6,000 thousand manuscripts.  They introduced the compass & paper from China & 0 – 9 from India, which replaced Roman numerals.

11 The Moors  Alhambra is a famous Moorish site in southern Spain.

12 The Moors  The Moors were known for intricate designs & patterns.

13 Arabic Words  More than 4,000 words of Arabic origin are used in modern Spanish as well as many in English.  English words from Arabic.  admiral- magazine  alcohol- mummy  algebra- orange (1 of 5 English words that doesn’t rhyme)  apricot- rook  cotton- saffron  giraffe- sofa  hummus- sugar  garbage- syrup  hazard- tariff  lemon- zero

14 Battle of Tours  The Battle of Tours was fought on October 10, 732, between Franks led by Charles Martel and a massive invading Islamic army led by Emir Abdul Rahman, near the city of Tours, France.  There were about 80,000 Muslims against 30,000 Franks.  During the battle, the Franks defeated the Islamic army and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed.

15 Battle of Tours  The Muslim force consisted mainly of cavalry & was geared for offensive warfare. They wore little armor. For arms, they relied on the sword & lance; arrows were little used.  The Franks were an infantry force (except for mounted nobles such as Charles). They used phalanx-formations & heavy armor (70 lbs. per person).  The Franks were as immovable as the Muslims were mobile. The Franks had a greater variety of weaponry: the shield, swords, daggers, javelins, & two kinds of axes, one for wielding & the other for throwing.

16 Battle of Tours  Charles chose to begin the battle in a defensive, phalanx-like formation. According to the Arabian sources they drew up in a large square.  The Arab army retreated south over the Pyrenees. Charles earned his nickname Martel, meaning hammer, in this battle. He continued to drive the Muslims from France in the following years.

17 The Battle of Tours  This battle stopped the northward advance of Islam from the Iberian peninsula & is considered by most historians to be of macro-historical importance.  It stopped the Islamic conquests, and preserved Christianity as the dominant faith in Europe, during a period in which Islam was overrunning the remains of the old Roman and Persian Empires in North Africa and the Middle East.  Charles Martel’s own grandson was Charlemagne, who ruled the Holy Roman Empire.

18 The Reconquista  The Reconquista was an effort by the Christian world to win Spain back from the Muslim Moors.  The Spanish took their country back one piece at a time.  Portugal separated in the 12 th century to form their own country.

19 Maps of the Reconquista Each region you see above has it’s own dialect of Spanish. The dialect of Castille is what’s spoken throughout the world. Galacia & Catalonia are still spoken today. Catalonia is actually considering forming their own country.

20 The Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula  5 Kingdoms  The Kingdom of Portugal  The Kingdom of Aragon  The Kingdom of Castile  The Kingdom of Navarre  The Kingdom of Granada  Each Kingdom has its own language.  The Spanish spoken throughout the world is Castilian Spanish.  There are regions in Spain today that want to be Independent & form their own country.

21 The Reconquista  When King Ferdinand of Aragon & Queen Isabelle of Castile were married, they combined their kingdoms to form the Spain we know today.

22 New Trade Route  The couple wanted to find a new trade route to Asia because Constantinople had fallen to the Turk in 1453 & it wasn’t as easy to trade anymore.  They paid for an Italian man, Christopher Columbus, to sail west to find a quicker route.

23 Unification of Spain  Once the Christian King ruled all of Spain (they gained Navarre in 1512), the Muslims who remained in Spain were to be given religious freedom.  At first, the Spanish tried persuasion and debate to convert the remaining Moors.

24 Unification of Spain  However, in 1499, the Spanish Archbishop took the more ruthless approach of forced conversions; & burned Arabic manuscripts. His brutal methods let to open revolt, which was quickly suppressed. The Spanish then considered the Treaty of Capitulation voided, & suspended freedom of religion.  The Moors were told to convert to Christianity or leave Spain.  Today, Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in Spain.

25 The Moors & Spain

26 The People of the Iberian Peninsula  was the Roman name for the Peninsula.  The people that have lived in Spain include the, Celts,, Goths,, Berbers,, and Hispano-Romans (ancestors of today’s ).  During Roman times the inhabitants of north Africa () were called. By the th century AD, the Roman army heavily recruited Moors for their exceptional in battle.

27 The Visigoths  The ruled Spain from – AD.  In the century A.D., invading conquered the Berbers & them to Islam. The mixed Arab-Berber population continued to be called Mauri, or, in Europe.  The Moors may have been by the Hispano-Romans who didn’t like the of the Visigoths.  The Visigoths off as a distinctive group.

28 The Moors  The origin of the term, "Moor" is the Greek word, "μαυρο" or "mavro" which literally means “.” They are an ethnic mix of the native &.  They came from north, across the Pillars of, which they renamed the Straights of (after a Muslim general). They all of the Iberian Peninsula except for Asturias & (northern ).  They ruled Spain for over years.  Their capital was. The Iberian peninsula was called the of Cordoba.

29 The Moors  The Moors allowed for freedom. However, & were required to pay a special for being (non- Muslims).  In Spain today, especially in Andalusia ( Spain), the presence of Moorish can still be seen on every.

30 The Moors  The Moors further developed, & in particular, irrigation, by channeling water to where it was needed (many of these systems are still in use ).  They introduced produce from which were unknown. Many of these are basic ingredients in today’s Spanish cuisine & include spices & produce such as saffron,, artichokes, pomegranates, carob,, grapefruits,, coriander &.

31 The Moors  Salt crusted baked have been show to come from the Islamic.  When it came to food, especially fish &, it would be mixed with or the item soaked in for a long time.  The introduction of revolutionized making.

32 The Moors  The most significant Moorish was known as Ziryab (the ) who arrived in Spain in. The Moors introduced the earliest versions of several instruments, including the, the guitar or & the.

33 The Moors  Scientific progress in, chemistry,, mathematics, & philosophy in Moorish Spain.  They brought back the knowledge of the ancient Greeks & Romans, notably.  At that time, Europe had only universities, the Moors had great universities. These were located in Almeria, Cordova, Granada, Juen, Malaga, Seville, &.

34 The Moors  In the th & th centuries, public in Europe were non-existent, while Moorish Spain could boast of more than, of which the one in Cordova housed thousand manuscripts.  They introduced the & paper from China & from India, which Roman numerals.

35 The Moors  is a famous Moorish site in Spain.

36 The Moors  The Moors were known for intricate &.

37 Arabic Words  More than words of origin are used in modern Spanish as well as many in English.  English words from Arabic.  -

38 Battle of Tours  The Battle of was fought on October 10,, between led by Charles and a massive invading army led by Emir Abdul, near the city of Tours,.  There were about 80,000 against 30,000.  During the battle, the Franks the Islamic army and Emir Abd er Rahman was.

39 Battle of Tours  The Muslim force consisted mainly of & was geared for warfare. They wore little. For arms, they relied on the & lance; were little used.  The Franks were an force (except for mounted nobles such as Charles). They used -formations & heavy ( lbs. per person).  The Franks were as as the Muslims were. The Franks had a greater variety of : the, swords,, javelins, & two kinds of, one for wielding & the other for throwing.

40 Battle of Tours  Charles chose to begin the battle in a, phalanx-like formation. According to the Arabian they drew up in a large.  The Arab army south over the. Charles earned his nickname Martel, meaning, in this battle. He continued to drive the from in the following years.

41 The Battle of Tours  This battle the northward of from the Iberian peninsula & is considered by most historians to be of - historical importance.  It stopped the Islamic, and as the dominant in, during a period in which Islam was g the remains of the old & Empires in North and the.  Charles Martel’s own was, who ruled the Roman.

42 The Reconquista  The was an effort by the world to win Spain back from the Muslim.  The Spanish took their back one at a time.  separated in the th century to form their own.

43 Maps of the Reconquista Each region you see above has it’s own of Spanish. The dialect of is what’s spoken throughout the world. & are still spoken today. is actually considering forming their own.

44 The Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula  5 Kingdoms  The Kingdom of  Each Kingdom has its own.  The Spanish spoken throughout the world is Spanish.  There are regions in today that want to be & form their own country.

45 The Reconquista  When King of & Queen of were married, they their to the we know today.

46 New Trade Route  The couple wanted to find a new to because had fallen to the in & it wasn’t as easy to anymore.  They paid for an man,, to sail to find a quicker.

47 Unification of Spain  Once the Christian ruled of (they gained in 1512), the Muslims who in Spain were to be given religious.  At first, the Spanish tried & debate to convert the Moors.

48 Unification of Spain  However, in 1499, the Spanish took the more ruthless approach of conversions; & Arabic manuscripts. His brutal methods let to open, which was quickly suppressed. The Spanish then considered the Treaty of Capitulation voided, & suspended of religion.  The Moors were told to convert to Christianity or leave Spain.  Today, is, by far, the largest religion in.


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