Presentation on theme: "A recipe for Cuban music Musical ingredients from around the world A little Mixing and cooking The music of Cuba =+"— Presentation transcript:
A recipe for Cuban music Musical ingredients from around the world A little Mixing and cooking The music of Cuba =+
Part 1 - Spanish Music Spanish music has a long history and includes many styles and sounds. There is one kind, however, that is very important to Spain and to this story. It is called Flamenco. Flamenco is actually a combination of singing, dancing, and guitar playing. It is a music that comes from several sources in Spanish history and it is the music that the Spanish settlers brought with them to Cuba. But now, a little more about Flamenco. Flamenco – Traditional Spanish Music
The Moors In the 8th century, Arab tribes, known as the Moors, crossed westward over the deserts of North Africa after having left Saudi Arabia. They were looking for fertile lands and people to teach their religion to. When they reached what is now the country of Morocco they could only go North. This is where the Moors crossed the Mediterranean sea at the narrowest point, and enter Spain. That is what they did.
The Moors in Spain In fact, after a few short battles, the Moors conquered southern Spain and made it an Arab state for over 800 years. That land was finally re- conquered by Spain in the 15th century. The Moorish culture can still be seen and heard in southern Spain. The Moors gave Spain one of the most important parts of its musical heritage. They brought with them a small stringed instrument called an Ud. It is the ancestor of the modern Spanish guitar. The Spanish guitar is the backbone of Flamenco music and is identified as one of the most important musical instruments in Spain.
The Ud The Ud The Spanish Guitar The Ud – a guitar brought to Spain by the Moors (in the 15 th century)
Spanish Troubadours The troubadours were singers and musical performers during the medieval time period in Europe (500-1400). They would compose and sing songs about heroism or love. Each region of Europe had a different style of troubadour music, including Spain. Modern Spanish style singing can be linked all the way back to the troubadours. Troubadour – musicians who developed the Spanish style of singing
The Gypsy (Romani or Gitano) The Gypsy are groups of Nomadic peoples that left India in about the 10th century. They traveled west throughout Europe, some settling in different areas as they went. Many, however, continued to travel until they reached Spain in the 15th century. They brought with them music and dancing that had never been seen or heard before in Spain. The rhythmic dancing and singing of the Gypsy peoples blended with the local Spanish folk music which was sung and played on the guitar. The resulting sound is known as Flamenco music and is considered to be the foundation of Spanish folk music tradition. Gypsy – a nomadic group of people, they arrived in Spain in the 15 th century
The mixing of ingredients…so far As you can see, traditional Spanish music is a blend of three main types of music. 1.The Ud – a stringed instrument brought to Spain by the Moors. + 2.Spanish singing – Linked all the way back to the troubadours. + 3. Gypsy singing and dancing. = Flamenco Music This musical blend is what the Spanish settlers brought with them.
Terms – Part 1 The Ud – An early version of the guitar brought to Spain by the Moors in the 8 th century. Troubadours – Early musicians who helped create the traditional sound of Spanish singing. Gypsy - Groups of nomadic people who traveled west across Europe, arriving in Spain in the 15th century Flamenco music – Traditional music of Spain. Ingredients: The Ud + Spanish singing + Gypsy rhythms and dances = Flamenco music
Part 2 - The Story of Cuba Near the end of the 15 th century, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain hired Christopher Columbus to sail west looking for a route to India and China. In August of 1492 he left Spain. He arrived in Cuba On October 29, 1492.
Cuba was not uninhabited At the time that the Spanish arrived, the island of Cuba was inhabited by a tribe of native people called the Taino. They had lived there already for about 2700 years. The Spanish, thinking there was gold in the rivers and mountains, captured the Taino people and made them search for the gold. None was found, but many of the Tainos died in the process. Within 20 years all of the native people of Cuba were killed by Spanish settlers or the illnesses that they brought with them.
Coffee, Sugar, and more Instead of finding gold, the Spanish discovered something that was nearly as profitable. The climate in Cuba, unlike that in Spain, was perfect for growing coffee, sugar, tobacco, and citrus fruits. Settlers came from Spain to build large plantations where these things could be grown. Slaves were brought from west Africa to work on the plantations. This was the beginning of the Trans- Atlantic slave trade.
Languages and Drums The slaves that were brought to Cuba were often separated from friends and family to go work on different plantations. Many of these people came from what is now Nigeria, as part of the Yoruba tribe. People from the Yoruba tribe had a unique language, called a tonal language, which the plantation owners were did not understand. This language could be spoken using a person’s voice, or a certain type of drum called a bata drum. Since the plantation owners allowed the slaves to build and play drums in the evenings, they were actually allowing the slaves to talk to other slaves over long distances.
The clave rhythm Many of the old rhythmic patterns from Africa still survive. They may have lost their original meaning but they have become part of Cuban music over the centuries. One of the most important of these rhythms is called the “clave” rhythm. It is usually played on the claves. It is a rhythm made up of a 3-2 pattern or a 2-3 pattern of notes. The clave rhythm - A rhythm made up of a 3-2 pattern or a 2-3 pattern of notes
The mixing of ingredients…so far The slaves brought with them their own culture, including their drums and singing. They were allowed to perform in the evenings and on Sundays. Over time, a new mixture developed. The ingredients were: 1.Spanish folk music (Flamenco) + 2. The rhythms and drums of the slaves = Cuban Salsa Music (Rhumba)
Terms - Part 2 The clave rhythm - A rhythm made up of a 3-2 pattern or a 2-3 pattern of notes Salsa music – A style of traditional music from Cuba. (Rhumba) Ingredients: Flamenco music + African rhythms and drums = Cuban salsa