Presentation on theme: " Arab Merchants ◦ Asia, North Africa and along the Mediterranean Coast Arab Armies ◦ Fail to take Constantinople in 717 ◦ Muslim Armies move into Spain."— Presentation transcript:
Arab Merchants ◦ Asia, North Africa and along the Mediterranean Coast Arab Armies ◦ Fail to take Constantinople in 717 ◦ Muslim Armies move into Spain ◦ Muslims advance into Christian Europe Stopped at the Battle of Tours (modern day France)
Centuries before Muhammad, Islam had not been able to conquer neighboring regions ◦ Roman Empire ◦ Byzantine Empire ◦ Persian Empire After Muhammad’s death, all three empires had either been defeated or weakened Also a shared religion now united the Arab peoples into one group.
Unlike the Byzantines before them, Muslims tolerated other faiths. Muslims allowed Christians and Jews to practice their own religions and pursue their own business affairs. Non-Muslim citizens did have fewer rights than Muslim citizens ◦ Could not carry weapons ◦ Could not serve in military ◦ Paid a special tax to support the government
Golden Age of Muslim culture lasted from about 800 to 1100 Caliphs (religious Muslim rulers) helped the empire grow strong and wealthy. Bagdad was the capital of the Muslim Empire during its golden age ◦ Bagdad was a natural center for trade Traders brought goods from all over the world to the Caliph’s court. ◦ The Caliph was considered Muhammad’s successor.
Arab scholars not only crated new works but also studied history and ideas from other cultures ◦ Advancements in Mathematics, Science and Literature. Arab scholars studied both Greek and Indian mathematics ◦ They learned the idea of Zero and “Arabic Numerals” from Indian scholars Discovery of Algebra (“al-jabr”) ◦ Enabled scientist to make great discoveries in astronomy, physics and chemistry.
Arab Scholars organized medical knowledge of the Greeks and Arabs Made great advances in: ◦ Anatomy (study of structure of bodies) ◦ Physiology (study of functioning of living things) ◦ Pharmacology (study of drugs)
Muslim writers made lasting works of literature. ◦ Poetry was import to the Islamic world ◦ Poets were treated as popular as musicians are today One group of Muslims used poetry to teach their ideas and beliefs. ◦ Sufis, Mystics who believed that they could draw close to God through prayer, fasting and a simple life. ◦ They taught that the world will reveal its mysteries to carful observers.