2 Caliphates – CausesArab soldiers committed to the promise of plunder unified around Islam and conquered territory from Spain to India across North Africa, Arabia and AnatoliaWeak Sassanid and Byzantine Empires made conquest easierFollowers were attracted to ideas of equality among believers and familiar with monotheism from Jewish and Christian traditions
3 EffectsCaliphate’s introduced bureaucratic structure and established first Muslim EmpireArabs, Persians and other groups unified politically and culturally as MuslimsTrade flourished, as merchants agreed on a common set of Muslim business dealingsIntellectual development led to algebra, preservation of Classical texts especially those of the GreeksMosques, hospitals, schools, orphanages and the House of Wisdom were builtIslam spread via trade routes to West Africa and to Southeast via the Indian Ocean to Central Asia and China via the Silk Routes
4 PoliticalBattle of Tours in 732AD stopped the Muslim advance into Europe and left only Spain in Muslim control.In 1096 Western Christians marched through the Byzantine Empire to take back the Holy Land from the Muslims.This conflict brought about the end of the feudal system in Western Europe.
5 EconomicIncreased interaction with the Islamic Empire during the Crusades led to a revival of European trade with Asia.This trade led to a rise in the economic prosperity of Western Europe
6 GeographicIslam spread into Africa, Asia, and Spain because of common language
7 SocialIncreased interaction with the Islamic Empire as a result of the Crusades opened Europeans up to new knowledge of science, medicine, and technology from the Muslims.Cordoba Spain was a cultural hub of the Islamic Empire in Europe.Europeans adopted Indian numerals from the Muslims
8 Religion Interaction Before Muslim control, Jews ostracized Spain = center of Muslim control with lots of JewsUnder Muslim control, Cordoba becomes Western Europe’s biggest cityMuslim practice of tolerance = everyone treated wellMuslims don’t pay taxesJews and Christians pay taxesJewish bankers charge interest for loans and extend credit for businessesReconquista – Christians try to recapture SpainSuccessful under Ferdinand and Isabella