Presentation on theme: "Age of Imperialism 1850-1914 What does this map imply about the Age of Imperialism?"— Presentation transcript:
1Age of ImperialismWhat does this map imply about the Age of Imperialism?
2Causes of Imperialism 1. Economic Motives The Industrial Revolution created great demand for raw materials (natural resources) and new markets.2. Desire for Political Power (nationalism)European nations wanted to demonstrate their power and prestige to the world.3. Sense of Racial SuperioritySocial Darwinism; in the struggle between nations, the fit are victorious4. White Man’s BurdenThe Europeans’ sense of superiority made them feel obligated to “civilize” others
3Scramble for AfricaIn the 1870s, the Belgian King Leopold sent emissaries to establish trade with native Africans in the Congo.Other European nations feared missing out, and sought to imperialize Africa.Desired African goods: gold, diamonds, rubber
4Berlin ConferenceEuropeans leaders meet to establish rules for colonizing AfricaNo African rulers invitedLittle or no thought about the complex differences in ethnic groupsBy 1914, only independent African nationsLiberia, Ethiopia
5According to this cartoon, what European countries were fighting for a position in Africa?
7Southern Africa 3 groups clash for power: Africans Boers British Zulu nation, led by Shaka, fought the British and BoerZulu nation lost to British in 1887BoersDescendants of Dutch settlers that had controlled South Africa since the mid 1600sAlso known as AfrikanersBritishGained control of South Africa during Berlin ConferenceTry to annex Boer territory (take control of country or area by using force)
8British influence Cecil Rhodes Founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world’s diamond production.After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region.
9The Boer WarFought between the Boers and the British over landMany Zulu fought with the BoersGuerilla tactics (Sneaky)British burned crops and had detention centersPeace treaty signed in 1902Union of South Africa established in 1910 by the British
10Effects of Imperialism PositiveReduces local fightingSanitation improvesHospitals and schools createdTechnology brings economic growthNegativeAfricans lose land and independenceMany lives are lostTraditional cultures breakdownDivision of Africa creates problems that continue today; tribalism
11“An English Traveler in Colonial Africa” Reading 1.What was Mary Kingsley doing in Africa?2. In what part of Africa was Kingsley traveling?3. How was the ship, the Move, powered?4. Does she seem to think she is in a dangerous situation or not?
13The Suez Canal Strategic waterway built by Great Britain Connects Mediterranean and Red SeaIncreased trade and transport between Europe, Middle East, Asia
14British East India Company Joint-stock company that sought to exploit natural resources and gain access to marketsInvolved in India’s political and military affairs“Divide and conquer” tactics; political and religious rivalries (Muslim v. Hindu)Employed Indian soldiers, sepoys, to protect the company’s interests in the region
15Sepoy Rebellion1857, a group of “sepoys” refused to load their rifles with cartridgesGreased with cow (sacred to Hindus) and pig (taboo to Muslims) fatMany sepoys revolt, are imprisonedSepoy troops kill 50 European men, women and childrentaken over by the British governmentDirect control instituted, increased mistrust1909
16Effects of British Rule PositiveStability and orderConstruction of roads and railroadsMove crops fasterIrrigation systems improve farmingEstablished school system, postal serviceNew laws mean justice for all classesCustoms end human rights violationsNegativeIndian resources go to Great BritainBritish manufactured goods destroy local industriesStarvation – food production cotton production (30 million Indians die)Indians are treated as inferiors; spurs resentment and angerGreat Britain tries to replace Indian culture with western ways
17Nationalism in India Formation of the Indian National Congress 1885Nationalistic organization in India with the purpose of ending British control.Mostly educated Hindu; Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal NehruFormation of Muslim League1906Many Muslims distrust Hindus
18“Famines in India under British Rule” 1. How did el Niño affect Indian peasants?2. How did the viceroy justify his inaction?3. What were some of the cash crops Indians were forced for produce?4. Where was much of the food that could have saved millions of Indians?5. All together, how many Indians starved died in the 1870s, 80s and 90s?
1912.4: Nation Building in Latin America What two European powers colonized the majority of Latin and South America?
20Causes of Latin American Independence Inspired by Enlightenment and revolutionary ideasAmerican and French RevolutionsNationalismAbusive, rigid social structure:PeninsularesCreolesMestizos/MulattosAfricans/slaves
21Haitian Revolution French colony 1791, Toussaint L’Ouverture led more than 100,000 slaves in revolt1804, became the first independent state in Latin AmericaHaiti
22Mexican Revolution #1Miguel Hidalgo and ill-equipped army of Native Americans and mestizos attack against the SpaniardsRebellion soon crushed, and Hidalgo sentenced to deathMexican elites, peninsulares and creoles, feared further lower class revolts and declared independence from Spain
23South American Independence “Liberators of South America”Simon BolivarEducated Creoleled resistance against Spanish (“the liberator”), he led military campaigns that won independence for Venezuela, Colombia (then, Granada), Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia.Jose de San MartinLed revolutions in Argentina, Chile, Peru1824, nearly all of South America had successfully revolted and won independence
24US in Latin America Monroe Doctrine 1823, US President, James Monroe, stated that European nations were not to interfere in Latin AmericaGreat Britain supports the US in return for access to LA marketsEuropean nations fear passing Great Britain en voyage to the western hemisphere1. Who are the figures on the right?2. Who is the figure on the left?3. What is the figure on the left doing?What is the author’s overall message?
25Panama Canal 1904, connects the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean Served the national interests of the United States
26Instability in Latin America Revolts, civil war, poverty and inequalityGeographic barriers and nationalism hinder unification of LADespite establishment of republics with constitutions, democracy did not follow.Colonial class structure remains largely intact (creoles replace peninsulares)Local caudillos supported by the landed elites put together own armies and challenge central governments
27Economic ProblemsCash crop economies of LA were unstable and dependent on Western nationsUS and Great Britain (large investors) dominate and exploitBuilt transportation and communication systems and power plantsLatin American elite encourage foreign companiesFastest way both to modernize their countries and to enrich the Latin American property owning class
28Mexican Revolution #2 1910-1930 Causes: Key Figures: Dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz brought economic advances, but only few elite and foreign investors benefitMost Mexicans are uneducated, landless and poorKey Figures:Emiliano Zapata – led peasant revolt, calling for land reform“Pancho” Villa – rebel leader in north, armed masses against Mexican gov’t and the US
29Effects: Constitution on 1917 Social and economic reform DBQ in TEXTBOOKSocial and economic reformDesire to no longer be dependent on industrial powers, bring industries under government control