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AGE OF IMPERIALISM 1850-1914 What does this map imply about the Age of Imperialism?

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Presentation on theme: "AGE OF IMPERIALISM 1850-1914 What does this map imply about the Age of Imperialism?"— Presentation transcript:

1 AGE OF IMPERIALISM What does this map imply about the Age of Imperialism?

2 CAUSES OF IMPERIALISM 1. ECONOMIC MOTIVES THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CREATED GREAT DEMAND FOR RAW MATERIALS (NATURAL RESOURCES) AND NEW MARKETS. 2. DESIRE FOR POLITICAL POWER (NATIONALISM) EUROPEAN NATIONS WANTED TO DEMONSTRATE THEIR POWER AND PRESTIGE TO THE WORLD. 3. SENSE OF RACIAL SUPERIORITY SOCIAL DARWINISM; IN THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN NATIONS, THE FIT ARE VICTORIOUS 4. WHITE MAN’S BURDEN THE EUROPEANS’ SENSE OF SUPERIORITY MADE THEM FEEL OBLIGATED TO “CIVILIZE” OTHERS

3 SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA IN THE 1870S, THE BELGIAN KING LEOPOLD SENT EMISSARIES TO ESTABLISH TRADE WITH NATIVE AFRICANS IN THE CONGO. OTHER EUROPEAN NATIONS FEARED MISSING OUT, AND SOUGHT TO IMPERIALIZE AFRICA. DESIRED AFRICAN GOODS: GOLD, DIAMONDS, RUBBER

4 BERLIN CONFERENCE  EUROPEANS LEADERS MEET TO ESTABLISH RULES FOR COLONIZING AFRICA  NO AFRICAN RULERS INVITED  LITTLE OR NO THOUGHT ABOUT THE COMPLEX DIFFERENCES IN ETHNIC GROUPS  BY 1914, ONLY INDEPENDENT AFRICAN NATIONS  LIBERIA, ETHIOPIA

5 ACCORDING TO THIS CARTOON, WHAT EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WERE FIGHTING FOR A POSITION IN AFRICA?

6 1914

7 SOUTHERN AFRICA 3 GROUPS CLASH FOR POWER: AFRICANS ZULU NATION, LED BY SHAKA, FOUGHT THE BRITISH AND BOER ZULU NATION LOST TO BRITISH IN 1887 BOERS DESCENDANTS OF DUTCH SETTLERS THAT HAD CONTROLLED SOUTH AFRICA SINCE THE MID 1600S ALSO KNOWN AS AFRIKANERS BRITISH GAINED CONTROL OF SOUTH AFRICA DURING BERLIN CONFERENCE TRY TO ANNEX BOER TERRITORY (TAKE CONTROL OF COUNTRY OR AREA BY USING FORCE)

8 BRITISH INFLUENCE CECIL RHODES FOUNDED THE DE BEERS MINING COMPANY, EVENTUALLY CONTROLLING 90% OF THE WORLD’S DIAMOND PRODUCTION. AFTER BECOMING PRIME MINISTER OF THE CAPE COLONY (NOW SOUTH AFRICA) IN 1890, HE USED HIS INFLUENCE TO STRENGTHEN BRITISH CONTROL OVER THE REGION.

9 THE BOER WAR FOUGHT BETWEEN THE BOERS AND THE BRITISH OVER LAND MANY ZULU FOUGHT WITH THE BOERS GUERILLA TACTICS (SNEAKY) BRITISH BURNED CROPS AND HAD DETENTION CENTERS PEACE TREATY SIGNED IN 1902 UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA ESTABLISHED IN 1910 BY THE BRITISH

10 EFFECTS OF IMPERIALISM  POSITIVE  REDUCES LOCAL FIGHTING  SANITATION IMPROVES  HOSPITALS AND SCHOOLS CREATED  TECHNOLOGY BRINGS ECONOMIC GROWTH  NEGATIVE  AFRICANS LOSE LAND AND INDEPENDENCE  MANY LIVES ARE LOST  TRADITIONAL CULTURES BREAKDOWN  DIVISION OF AFRICA CREATES PROBLEMS THAT CONTINUE TODAY; TRIBALISM

11 “An English Traveler in Colonial Africa” Reading 1.WHAT WAS MARY KINGSLEY DOING IN AFRICA? 2. IN WHAT PART OF AFRICA WAS KINGSLEY TRAVELING? 3. HOW WAS THE SHIP, THE MOVE, POWERED? 4. DOES SHE SEEM TO THINK SHE IS IN A DANGEROUS SITUATION OR NOT?

12 British Rule in India 12.3:

13 The Suez Canal STRATEGIC WATERWAY BUILT BY GREAT BRITAIN CONNECTS MEDITERRANEAN AND RED SEA INCREASED TRADE AND TRANSPORT BETWEEN EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST, ASIA

14 British East India Company JOINT-STOCK COMPANY THAT SOUGHT TO EXPLOIT NATURAL RESOURCES AND GAIN ACCESS TO MARKETS INVOLVED IN INDIA’S POLITICAL AND MILITARY AFFAIRS “DIVIDE AND CONQUER” TACTICS; POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS RIVALRIES (MUSLIM V. HINDU) EMPLOYED INDIAN SOLDIERS, SEPOYS, TO PROTECT THE COMPANY’S INTERESTS IN THE REGION

15 Sepoy Rebellion 1857, A GROUP OF “SEPOYS” REFUSED TO LOAD THEIR RIFLES WITH CARTRIDGES GREASED WITH COW (SACRED TO HINDUS) AND PIG (TABOO TO MUSLIMS) FAT MANY SEPOYS REVOLT, ARE IMPRISONED SEPOY TROOPS KILL 50 EUROPEAN MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN TAKEN OVER BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT DIRECT CONTROL INSTITUTED, INCREASED MISTRUST 1909

16 Effects of British Rule POSITIVE STABILITY AND ORDER CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND RAILROADS MOVE CROPS FASTER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS IMPROVE FARMING ESTABLISHED SCHOOL SYSTEM, POSTAL SERVICE NEW LAWS MEAN JUSTICE FOR ALL CLASSES CUSTOMS END HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS NEGATIVE INDIAN RESOURCES GO TO GREAT BRITAIN BRITISH MANUFACTURED GOODS DESTROY LOCAL INDUSTRIES STARVATION – FOOD PRODUCTION  COTTON PRODUCTION (30 MILLION INDIANS DIE) INDIANS ARE TREATED AS INFERIORS; SPURS RESENTMENT AND ANGER GREAT BRITAIN TRIES TO REPLACE INDIAN CULTURE WITH WESTERN WAYS

17 Nationalism in India FORMATION OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS 1885 NATIONALISTIC ORGANIZATION IN INDIA WITH THE PURPOSE OF ENDING BRITISH CONTROL. MOSTLY EDUCATED HINDU; MOHANDAS GANDHI AND JAWAHARLAL NEHRU FORMATION OF MUSLIM LEAGUE 1906 MANY MUSLIMS DISTRUST HINDUS

18 “Famines in India under British Rule” 1. HOW DID EL NIÑO AFFECT INDIAN PEASANTS? 2. HOW DID THE VICEROY JUSTIFY HIS INACTION? 3. WHAT WERE SOME OF THE CASH CROPS INDIANS WERE FORCED FOR PRODUCE? 4. WHERE WAS MUCH OF THE FOOD THAT COULD HAVE SAVED MILLIONS OF INDIANS? 5. ALL TOGETHER, HOW MANY INDIANS STARVED DIED IN THE 1870S, 80S AND 90S?

19 12.4: Nation Building in Latin America What two European powers colonized the majority of Latin and South America?

20 Causes of Latin American Independence INSPIRED BY ENLIGHTENMENT AND REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS NATIONALISM ABUSIVE, RIGID SOCIAL STRUCTURE: PENINSULARES CREOLES MESTIZOS/MULATTOS AFRICANS/SLAVES

21 Haitian Revolution FRENCH COLONY 1791, TOUSSAINT L’OUVERTURE LED MORE THAN 100,000 SLAVES IN REVOLT 1804, BECAME THE FIRST INDEPENDENT STATE IN LATIN AMERICA Haiti

22 Mexican Revolution # MIGUEL HIDALGO AND ILL-EQUIPPED ARMY OF NATIVE AMERICANS AND MESTIZOS ATTACK AGAINST THE SPANIARDS REBELLION SOON CRUSHED, AND HIDALGO SENTENCED TO DEATH MEXICAN ELITES, PENINSULARES AND CREOLES, FEARED FURTHER LOWER CLASS REVOLTS AND DECLARED INDEPENDENCE FROM SPAIN

23 South American Independence “LIBERATORS OF SOUTH AMERICA” SIMON BOLIVAR EDUCATED CREOLE LED RESISTANCE AGAINST SPANISH (“THE LIBERATOR”) , HE LED MILITARY CAMPAIGNS THAT WON INDEPENDENCE FOR VENEZUELA, COLOMBIA (THEN, GRANADA), ECUADOR, PERU, BOLIVIA. JOSE DE SAN MARTIN LED REVOLUTIONS IN ARGENTINA, CHILE, PERU 1824, NEARLY ALL OF SOUTH AMERICA HAD SUCCESSFULLY REVOLTED AND WON INDEPENDENCE

24 US in Latin America MONROE DOCTRINE 1823, US PRESIDENT, JAMES MONROE, STATED THAT EUROPEAN NATIONS WERE NOT TO INTERFERE IN LATIN AMERICA GREAT BRITAIN SUPPORTS THE US IN RETURN FOR ACCESS TO LA MARKETS EUROPEAN NATIONS FEAR PASSING GREAT BRITAIN EN VOYAGE TO THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE What is the author’s overall message? 1. Who are the figures on the right? 2. Who is the figure on the left? 3. What is the figure on the left doing?

25 PANAMA CANAL 1904, CONNECTS THE CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE PACIFIC OCEAN SERVED THE NATIONAL INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES

26 Instability in Latin America REVOLTS, CIVIL WAR, POVERTY AND INEQUALITY GEOGRAPHIC BARRIERS AND NATIONALISM HINDER UNIFICATION OF LA DESPITE ESTABLISHMENT OF REPUBLICS WITH CONSTITUTIONS, DEMOCRACY DID NOT FOLLOW. COLONIAL CLASS STRUCTURE REMAINS LARGELY INTACT (CREOLES REPLACE PENINSULARES) LOCAL CAUDILLOS SUPPORTED BY THE LANDED ELITES PUT TOGETHER OWN ARMIES AND CHALLENGE CENTRAL GOVERNMENTS

27 ECONOMIC PROBLEMS CASH CROP ECONOMIES OF LA WERE UNSTABLE AND DEPENDENT ON WESTERN NATIONS US AND GREAT BRITAIN (LARGE INVESTORS) DOMINATE AND EXPLOIT BUILT TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND POWER PLANTS LATIN AMERICAN ELITE ENCOURAGE FOREIGN COMPANIES FASTEST WAY BOTH TO MODERNIZE THEIR COUNTRIES AND TO ENRICH THE LATIN AMERICAN PROPERTY OWNING CLASS

28 Mexican Revolution # CAUSES: DICTATORSHIP OF PORFIRIO DIAZ BROUGHT ECONOMIC ADVANCES, BUT ONLY FEW ELITE AND FOREIGN INVESTORS BENEFIT MOST MEXICANS ARE UNEDUCATED, LANDLESS AND POOR KEY FIGURES: EMILIANO ZAPATA – LED PEASANT REVOLT, CALLING FOR LAND REFORM “PANCHO” VILLA – REBEL LEADER IN NORTH, ARMED MASSES AGAINST MEXICAN GOV’T AND THE US

29 EFFECTS: CONSTITUTION ON 1917 DBQ IN TEXTBOOK SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC REFORM DESIRE TO NO LONGER BE DEPENDENT ON INDUSTRIAL POWERS, BRING INDUSTRIES UNDER GOVERNMENT CONTROL


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