Presentation on theme: "The Height of Imperialism (1800 – 1914)"— Presentation transcript:
1The Height of Imperialism (1800 – 1914) Chapter 14The Height of Imperialism(1800 – 1914)
2Section 1: Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia Western expansion into Asia and AfricaSource of industrial raw materialsMarket for Western manufactured goodsSource of national prestigeMoral responsibility to civilize the primitive peopleconvert them to Christianity and introduce them to the benefits of Western democracy and capitalism
3Great BritainFounded a new colony on the Malay Peninsula called SingaporeTook control of Burma (known as Myanmar today)FranceSent missionaries to VietnamInternal rivalries divided the country into two separate governmentsTerritory became a French protectorate
4Thailand Only remaining free state in Southeast Asia Two remarkable rulers resisted Western expansion into their territory by maintaining friendly relations with the major powersKing MongkutKing ChulalongkornWould become a buffer state between the possessions of Britain and France in Southeast Asia
5Indirect and Direct Rule Indirect ruleallowed local rulers to maintain their positions of authority while they carried out the laws of imperial countryLowered the cost of governmentHad a less effect on the local culture
6Direct ruleLocal elites were removed from power and replaced with a new set of officials from the mother country
7Colonial economiesBecause colonial powers didn’t want the colonists to develop their own industriesColonial policy dictated the export of raw materialsIt also led to the formation of plantation agriculture owned by foreign investorsPositive note: they built railroads, highways, etc. that benefitted the local people
8Resistance to Colonial Rule Many were unhappy with Western ruleOriginal resistance came from the ruling classResistance would eventually lead to peasant revoltsA new urban middle class that was educated in Western style schools would eventually lead massive resistance movements in their countriesThis would not happen until the 1930’s**end of notes**
9Section 2: Empire Building in Africa By 1900, virtually all of Africa was under European rule.As the slave trade declined in West Africa, Great Britain and France would establish territories in the interest of peanuts, timber, hides, and palm oil.By 1890’s, slavery had been abolished in all major countries of the world.
10North AfricaMuhammad Ali seized power from the Ottoman Turks and established Egypt as a separate state.He modernized the army, set up a public school system, and created small industries.British became interested in building a canal to connect the Med. Sea to the Red Sea.Suez Canal was completed in 1869.Egypt would become a British protectorate in 1914.
11Central AfricaDavid Livingstone explored parts of Central Africa for 30 years.When he disappeared, Henry Stanley (a journalist) went in search of him.He continued Livingstone’s work when he died in 1873.
12South AfricaAfrikaners (a.k.a. the Boers), were forced northward when the British seized Cape Town and the surrounding areas in South Africa.As a result, many natives were put on reservations as the Boers moved northward.Boers were in constant battle with the Zulu.Eventually the British would defeat the Zulu.
13Rise of NationalismA new class of leaders emerged as a result of their education in the West.Many of them came to resent foreigners because it meant a loss of their farmlands as well as loss of jobs on plantations and factories.Westerners segregated schools, churches, clubs, etc.They would eventually organize political parties and movements to seek an end to foreign rule.**end of notes**
14Section 3: British Rule in India British East India CompanyInterfered in India’s political and military affairsEmployed Indian soldiers known as sepoysThey would later revolt because:of distrust of the BritishA rumor that the British were using bullets greased with pig and cow fatRevolt was crushed within a year
15Because of the revolt, the British tightened their control in India. Positive effects:Brought order and stability to the regionSchool system createdRailroads, telegraph, and postal system created
16Negative effects:British manufactured goods destroyed the local industriesIncreased taxesLoss of farmlandShortage of food supply because of new farm product – cottonDisrespect for Indian culture
17Indian Nationalist Movement In 1885, a group met in Mumbai and created the Indian National CongressGoal was to seek India’s independence from British controlIn 1915, an individual by the name of Mohandas Gandhi would set up a movement of non-violent resistance.His actions would eventually lead to India’s independence.**end of notes**
18Section 4: Nation Building in Latin America The successful revolution in North America led to the beginning of revolts in Latin America.Creoles supported legal equality of all people as well as free trade and free press.They soon denounced the rule of the Spanish and the Portuguese.
19Revolt in MexicoMiguel Hidalgo roused the local natives and mestizos to free themselves from Spain.Sept. 16, 1810, a mob attacked the Spaniards.Their revolt would be crushed and Hidalgo sentenced to death.Under Agustin de Iturbide, the Mexicans would declare their independence in 1821.
20Revolts in South America Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar led revolutions throughout South America.The Central American states would be free by (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua)By the end of 1824, Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile would be freed from Spain.
21Problems with Nation Building Rule of CaudillosRuled by military forceNew imperialismBritish investors poured money into industriesInequalityThe elite maintained most of the power
22The United States in Latin America Cuba became a protectorateCosta Rica was annexedSupported Panama in a rebellion to separate from Colombia and become its own nationIn return, the U.S. was given control of 10 miles of land running from coast to coast – they built the Panama Canal which opened in 1914**end of notes**