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The Conservative order and Challenges of Reform Conservatives NationalistsPolitical Liberals Redraw the map of Europe according to ethnic or national boundaries.

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Presentation on theme: "The Conservative order and Challenges of Reform Conservatives NationalistsPolitical Liberals Redraw the map of Europe according to ethnic or national boundaries."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Conservative order and Challenges of Reform Conservatives NationalistsPolitical Liberals Redraw the map of Europe according to ethnic or national boundaries. Political reform (liberties) and a free market. Threatened monarchies and aristocracy with equality for all Enlightenment Ideas and Political equality of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Codes demanded REFORM but met suppression Maintain order with monarchs, aristocracy

2 Congress of Vienna Goals: 1. Create a lasting peace 2. Prevent another French nightmare ` 3. Establish a balance of power among European Nations Big Four Prussia Von Hardenberg Russia Czar Alexander I England Castlereagh Austria Metternich Participants Achievements Legitimacy Restore Bourbons: France Spain Naples Two Sicilies Restore Habsburgs: Tuscany Modena Sardinia Holland Restore Pope: Papal States Leniency Restored French borders to 1792 [only lost territories in Italy, Germany and Low Countries] France was not forced to pay reparations until the 100 Days Kept art from European museums Encirclement United Belgium and Holland = Netherlands Confederation of Germany [39 states controlled by Austria] Switzerland gained independence Sardinia united with Piedmont and Genoa Compensation England – Malta, Ceylon, Cape of Good Hope Austria – Lombardy, Venetia, Galicia and Illyrian Peninsula Prussia – Rhine Valley, 2/5 Saxony, parts of Poland Russia – Poland, Finland, Bessarabia Results: France Gladly accepted Terms Rule by Conservatives Peaceful and reasonable settlements between states and not monarchy [peace would survive a ruler] Balance of Power – considered political, economic, resources, technology, education, industry Peace for 50 Years

3 NATIONALISM MOST POWERFUL POLITICAL IDEOLOGY IN 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES People joined by common language, customs, cultures, history should share common borders and be governed by their own Same ethnic groups should live within their own political border and not under the control of another country [Austria, Russia, Germany, Italy] Believed in popular sovereignty - government is created by and subject to the will of the people. Used historians, teachers and writers to develop national language and unity- Herder But which ethnic group could do all this and establish and PROTECT their independence? Smaller ethnic groups within larger nations created unrest. Areas of unrest: 1.Ireland5. Easter Europe (Hungarians, Czechs, Slovenes 2.Germany6. Balkans (Serbs, Greeks, Albanians, Romanians) 3.Italy 4.Poland Map of Europe 1815 - 1848

4 LIBERALISM Challenged political, social or religious values with Enlightenment liberties and French Revolutionaries ideals. Wanted equality before the law, religious tolerance and freedom of the press Limit the power of the government against its citizens and their property Instead government power came from the people who elected representatives or parliaments to protect and advocate their demands Required state or royal ministers to be responsible to the people and not the crown These rights would be written in a Constitution Wanted promotion by merit Mostly wealthy, educated people who had been excluded for the political process (bourgeoisie) who wanted representation extended to a propertied class, not the lower, rural and urban classes. Privileges would be based on wealth and property, not birth Landed, manufacturing middle classes wanted free trade - removal of tariffs and internal taxes. Adam’s Smith’s laws of free trade: 1. Self-interest, 2. Competition, 3. Supply and Demand = more goods and services at lower prices for material progress. Animosity toward aristocrats and lower classes but would use both to their advantage How this was achieved depended on different countries and further separated Western from Eastern Europe

5 CONSERVATISM MONARCHIESARISTROCRACYCHURCH Monarchs had learned to trust aristocracy or aristocrats in alliance with wealthy middle class after Louis XVI’s death and the institution of democratic governments. The aristocracy realized their property and influence was only safe with monarchs Churches feared new ideas and realized that they could only survive by educating the populace to accept social and political conservatism Faced new pressures: Peace gave people time to protest People faced unemployment Young had nothing to do but PROTEST = REPRESSION


7 Austrian Suppression Liberalism and nationalism were most dangerous and threatening to the Hapsburg empire. (see map). To recognize all national groups within its borders would destroy the Hapsburg empire. To allow liberals representation in government would allow nationalists a stage for protest. Assumed authority over the Confederation of German states 39 under Austrian control Prussian Suppression Frederick William II had promised a form of constitutional government but took back the promise in 1817. He created a Council of State that was not constitutionally based. When his ministers resigned, he replaced them with hardened conservatives and set up 8 provincial estates or diets dominated by Junkers and gave them limited advisory functions. Monarchs, army and landholders bonded together. Conservatives were now poised to suppress nationalists and liberals

8 Suppression in Confederation of the Rhine Although Baden, Bavaria and Wurttenberg had constitutions, they did not recognize popular sovereignty and claimed political rights were “gifts from the monarch.” University students who remembered Stein and von Hardenburg’s reforms and the writings of Herder and Fichte kept the dream alive. Student associations called Burschenschaftens formed to foster loyalty to a united German state. Jena - student club celebrated victory at Leipzig and 95 thesis with over 500 in attendance. Made conservatives edgy 1819 Karl Sand assassinated a conservative playwright. He was tried, condemned and publicly executed as a deterrent As a result, Carlsbad Decrees dissolved the Burschenschaftens and called for university inspectors and press censors Final Act limited subjects that could addressed in chambers of Baden, Bavaria and Wurttenburg

9 Western Europe also moved to suppress radicals England TORIES were unprepared for post war problems of poor harvests and unemployment and only sought to help the landowners and wealthy class Corn Law - kept high prices on English grain with tariffs on foreign grain (Foreign grain prices were high so English could raise their grain prices just under import prices) Abolished Income taxes for wealthy and replaced it with an excise tax on consumer goods (Double Whammy for lower classes) Passed Combination Act outlawing unions and called for end to Poor Laws. No wonder the lower classes called for Parliamentary reform. The government answer was repression Coercion Act suspended habeas corpus and extended laws against Sedition Industrial Manchester called for reform with mass meetings at Saint Peter’s Field. Royal troops and rioters clashed, 11 killed many injured “Peterloo Massacre.” Six Acts - forbad large unauthorized public gatherings, raised fines for sedition, sped up trials for political agitators, prohibited training of armed groups, allowed local official s to search homes Cato Conspiracy - half-baked idea to blow up cabinet

10 Bourbon Kings back in France Louis XVIII was smart enough to become a constitutional monarch Charter Hereditary monarch and 2 house legislature: king appointed upper house, the lower house, Chamber of Deputies, elected by limited franchise and high property qualifications. Guaranteed most rights of the revolution, protected property of current owners and offered religious tolerance. Decided NOT to challenge property rights of current landowners. Ultraroyalism “White terror” against former revolutionaries and supporters of Napoleon. Ultraroyalists (aristocrats who lost land) were a majority in Chamber of Deputies and were so dangerous that assembly was disbanded. New elections brought in more moderates. Assassination of Duke of Berri, King Louis was persuaded it was the work of liberals and changed electoral laws to give wealthy 2 votes, censored press and arrested political agitators. Education went back under the church. Liberalism was suppressed. BUT Conservatives Liberals and Nationalists

11 Concert of Europe - Maintain PEACE PEAR consulted about foreign policy before taking a major international action to maintain a balance of power between new French aggression (100 days) and Russian might. CONGRESS SYSTEM - PEAR removed troops from France Spanish Revolt of 1820 Bourbon King promised a constitution then revoked promise - disbanded Cortes (parliament). When army rebelled, Fred VII again promised constitution. Kingdoms of Naples and 2 Sicilies accepted constitution but revolts made Metternich nervous Congress of Troppeau - RAP +EF met and issued Protocol: allowed stable governments to interfere and restore order in other countries Congress of Laibach: Austrian troops went into Naples and 2 Sicilies restoring non- constitutional government Verona: England left alliance, RAP supported French troops in Spain to stop revolt INTERNATIONAL ORDER PRESERVED Powers did not seek territorial conquests rather international order England exploited LA revolts to increase trade w/ Monroe Doctrine

12 Serbia Greek Revolution Controlled by the Ottoman empire, the Greeks took advantage of the “Eastern Question,” what should European nations do about the inability of the Turks to maintain political order in its holdings as it weakened. Liberals romanticized about ancient democracy and supported the revolt. (Byron) Russia and Austria would battle for control of the Balkans, France and England were interested in its commercial posts in the eastern Mediterranean and then there was the Holy Land. Of course, these interests opposed national groups within the Empire who wanted their independence. Finally FER decided an independent Greece would benefit their interests and signed the Treaty of London demanding Turks recognize Greek Independence. Russia sent troops into and gained control of Romania. The Turkish fleet was defeated at the Battle of Navarino. The second Treaty of London gave Greeks independence. 1830 Also wanted freedom from Ottomans. Karageorge led first revolt that resulted in national identity. Milo won greater autonomy and continued to push for more territory from the Turks leading to troubles with Austria, its neighbor. Status of minority groups like the Muslims also caused tensions. Russia eventually became Serbia’s protector despite Austrian interests. This alliance is key for WW I.

13 ARGENTINA Juntas get independence for Paraguay and Uraguay (taken by Brazil) San Marti led army into Chile CHILE Dictator Brendan O’Higgins replaced by San Marti VENEZUELA Simon Bolivar, exiled for his involvement with the junta, invaded Bogota as a base for attack on Venezuela which he conquered. He (republic) and Marti (monarchy)clashed over political policy and Marti retired BRAZIL JUNTAS - political committees

14 Wars for Independence in Latin America Peninsulars Creoles Mestizos Creoles wanted more trade within LA and NA, resented SP taxation and peninsulares who received top jobs in government, the church and army. Familiar with Enlightenment ideals and Am Rev but the direct cause for revolt was Napoleon driving Portuguese royal family to Brazil while Spanish crown in LA was empty.Creoles seized the opportunity to avoid a liberal Fr. ruler in Spain who would injure their economic and social demands or drain their economy for Napoleonic wars. So Juntas, (Creole political groups) claimed right to govern. Juntas ended Spanish political control and privileges of peninsulars Haiti Slave revolt led by Toussaint L’Ouverture and Jean Jacques Dessalines. Unique because independence came from mestizos. Creoles did not want their socio-economic order shaken. ARGENTINA (Southern LA) Junta in Buenos Aires ended Spanish control and sent forces into Paraquay and Uruguay who eventually achieved independence. Jose de San Marti led his army over the Andes and into Chile where Chilean independence leader, Bernardo O’Higgins was dictator. Also led navy to assault Peru and drove out royalists

15 VENEZUELA (Northern LA) Simon Bolivar organized junta in Venezuela where civil war between royalists and llaneros fought against republicans. Exiled for a period of time, Bolivar captured Bogota to use as a base against Venezuela. The tactic worked and Venezuela was liberated. Bolivar and Marti’s armies joined forces but a disagreement about rule forces San Marti out. Bolivar’s defeat of Spanish at Ayacucho marked the end of Spanish rule in LA. NEW SPAIN (Mexico, Texas, California) Juntas were organized but were challenged by rebellion from lower classes. Leaders of this movement, Hidalgo and Pavon were executed proving the Creoles were conservative and did not want their privileges extended to lower classes. So, creoles supported royalist Iturbide for Mexican independence. BRAZIL Independence can simply and peacefully when Portuguese royal family fled here. Joao addressed local complaints by expanding trade and made Brazil a kingdom, no longer a colony. Dom Pedro (Joao’s son) stayed in Brazil and embraced Brazilian independence. Independence was aided by political leaders who observed destruction of LA wars of independence and elite had every intention of preserving slavery that had been abolished in other wars. Any attempt to gain independence with warfare would have caused social and political unrest opening the slavery question up for debate. RESULTS: Wars left LA economically devastated and politically unstable Wars had been civil wars and left a dissatisfied population Creoles returned to Spain and LA turned to England for help

16 Now the Conservative Nations, who suppressed revolt for so long, will experience direct challenges from Liberals and Nationalists. The response was suppression in Russia and France but accommodation in England. 1830 Revolts Russia Alex I Military Officers who drove out Napoleon were exposed to Enlightenment and Revolutionary ideas. Unable to speak openly because of Alex, they formed secret societies. The Southern Society, led by Pestel, wanted representative government and abolition of serfdom. (also thought about independency for Poland and democracy) The Northern Society favored constitutional monarchy and abolition of serfdom but wanted protection for aristocratic privileges. They got a chance for a coup when Alex I died - Dynastic Crisis between Constantine and Nicholas Decembrist Revolt When army reported a conspiracy among some officers, Nicholas declared himself Tsar. December 26th, army was to take an oath of loyalty to Nicholas. All took the oath except the Moscow regiment who marched into St. Petersburg, called for a constitution and Constantine as Tsar. Nicholas ordered the cavalry and artillery to attack. More then 60 were killed. Five plotters were executed and 100 sent to Siberia

17 Absolute Rule of Nicholas I “There is no doubt that serfdom, in its present form, is a flagrant evil which everyone realizes, yet to attempt to remedy it now would be, of course, an evil more disastrous.” Nicholas would lose nobles support so he turned his back on reform and suppressed with censorship and secret police. BUT he did codify laws. Instead Nicholas issued Official Nationality - “Orthodoxy, Autocracy and Nationalism” Revolt in Poland Poland was granted a constitutional government under the Russian Tsars, but news of revolts in other countries fostered insurrection among Polish soldiers and students. The Polish diet declared these a nationalist movement and deposed the Tsar who sent in troops and issued the Organic Statute making Poland a part of Russia.

18 1830 Revolts in France - Ultraconservative - Charles X Accommodations in France Angered Liberals by 1.Paying back emigres with lowered interest rates for government bonds 2.Reinstituted primogeniture 3.Punished sacrilege with imprisonment or death (helped the Church) Liberals did receive enough votes in the Chamber of Deputies to get Charles to appoint conservative ministers and relax censorship. When liberals demand constitutional monarchy, Charles replaces ministers with ultra-royalists JULY REVOLTS When the 1830 election returned liberals to Chamber, Charles tried to seize power. Taking advantage of French victory against Algiers, Charles issued the Four Ordinances that restricted freedom of press, dissolved the Chamber of Deputies, restricted franchise to wealthiest and called for new elections under this royalist franchise Now the laborers (lower urban classes) of Paris revolted and took to the streets, erecting barricades. The king’s troops killed 1,800 during these battles. King was forced to abdicate, Chamber elected new ministry of Constitutional monarchists and ended Bourbon Dynasty proclaiming duke of Orleans, Louis Philippe as King Victory - Middle Class who averted a monarchy and a republic

19 July Monarchy of Louis Philippe Politically - constitutional monarchy, anti-clerical abolished censorship and franchise expanded a little Socially - Conservative - economic interests favored the landowners and there was a great deal of corruption. Also, Louis had little sympathy for lower and working classes. When lower class of Paris called for job security, better wages, and preservation of crafts they were ignored. Workers revolted in 1831, 1832 and 1834 but all were crushed by government troops. Belgium The former Austrian Netherlands was merged with Holland at the Congress of Vienna. Wanting independence for Nationalist reasons, the Belgians revolted and defeated the Dutch in 1830 and their national congress wrote a Liberal Constitution. Lord Palmerston of England worked had to persuade Europe to accept Belgian independence and neutrality. Just like Serbia, this would play a large role in WW I

20 Reform in England Great Reform Bill of 1832 conservatives and liberals accommodated each other Because they were such a large social class, Middle class industrialists’ economic interests required attention in Parliament Whigs were in power now and they favored reform British Cabinet also favored reform to accommodate changing economic and social shifts REASONS REFORM BILLS 1.Abolish “rotten boroughs, districts with few voters and replace them with representatives from large manufacturing districts that never had representation 2.Number of voters from England and Wales would increase by 50% (200,000) House of Lords rejected the Bill until William IV threatened to increase the House of Lords with new peers who would outvote the old conservatives Not exactly democratic. For every new urban borough, a rural borough was added where aristocrats dominated. AND WOMEN STILL DID NOT VOTE. CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION Act of Union sent 100 Irish PROTESTANT members to the House of Commons. Irish Nationalists under O’Connell organized the Catholic Association and won election to Parliament but was not allowed to be seated Catholic Emancipation Act allowed Roman Catholics - ended Anglican monopoly and returned reformers to the House of Commons for the Reform Bill

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