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Chapter 20: The Conservative Order & the Challenges of Reform 1815-1832.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20: The Conservative Order & the Challenges of Reform 1815-1832."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20: The Conservative Order & the Challenges of Reform

2 Section 1: The Challenges of Nationalism & Liberalism What were the goals of the 1815 Congress of Vienna? What were the goals of the 1815 Congress of Vienna? What were the five “isms” that emerged in the 19 th century? What were the five “isms” that emerged in the 19 th century? How was it that it was in fact nationalists who actually created nations in the 19 th century? How was it that it was in fact nationalists who actually created nations in the 19 th century? What role did/does nationalism play in the foundation of nationalism? What role did/does nationalism play in the foundation of nationalism? What were the goals of nationalists? What difficulties did nationalists confront when trying to realize these goals? What were the goals of nationalists? What difficulties did nationalists confront when trying to realize these goals? Why was nationalism a special threat to the Austrian & Russian Empires? What other European powers faces nationalistic pressure in the years ? Why was nationalism a special threat to the Austrian & Russian Empires? What other European powers faces nationalistic pressure in the years ? Giuseppe Mazzini Daniel O’Connor

3 Section 1: The Challenges of Nationalism & Liberalism What were the tenants of 19 th century European liberalism? What were the tenants of 19 th century European liberalism? Who were the liberals, & how did liberalism affect the political developments of the early 19 th century Who were the liberals, & how did liberalism affect the political developments of the early 19 th century What were the political goals of 19 th century European liberals? What were the political goals of 19 th century European liberals? Although liberals wanted broader political participation, they did not advocate democracy. Why? Although liberals wanted broader political participation, they did not advocate democracy. Why? What were the economic goals of century European liberals? What were the economic goals of century European liberals?

4 Section 2: Conservative Governments: The Domestic Political Outlook What were the three major pillars of 19 th century European conservatism? What were the three major pillars of 19 th century European conservatism? Who epitomized 19 th century European conservatism? Who epitomized 19 th century European conservatism? Why, following 1815, did conservative aristocrats feel as if they were always on the defensive? What does the term ‘reactionary’ mean? Why, following 1815, did conservative aristocrats feel as if they were always on the defensive? What does the term ‘reactionary’ mean? What difficulties did the conservative régimes of Austria, Prussian, & Russia face after 1815? What difficulties did the conservative régimes of Austria, Prussian, & Russia face after 1815? What were the Carlsbad Decrees? What were the Carlsbad Decrees?

5 Section 2: Conservative Governments: The Domestic Political Outlook  What were the 1819 Six Acts? What was the overall goal of the Six Acts? Prime Minister Sir Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

6 Section 2: Conservative Governments: The Domestic Political Outlook To what extent did the Charter of 1814 accept the changes of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era? To what extent did the Charter of 1814 accept the changes of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era? What was ultraroyalism? What did Charles X hope to accomplish? What was ultraroyalism? What did Charles X hope to accomplish? King Louis XVIII The Count of Artois, the future King Charles X

7 Section 3: The Conservative International Order What was the Concert of Europe? Who were the major powers that took part in the Concert? What was the Concert of Europe? Who were the major powers that took part in the Concert? What were the goals of the Concert? Did the Concert uphold the ideals of the Congress of Vienna system? What were the goals of the Concert? Did the Concert uphold the ideals of the Congress of Vienna system? What nations were in the Holy Alliance? What did the Holy Alliance stand for? What was it against? What nations were in the Holy Alliance? What did the Holy Alliance stand for? What was it against? What action was taken by the Congress of Troppau under Metternich’s leadership when Naples was overthrown by revolutionaries? What was the reaction of Tsar Alexander I? What action was taken by the Congress of Troppau under Metternich’s leadership when Naples was overthrown by revolutionaries? What was the reaction of Tsar Alexander I? What actions did the Congress decided to take at the Verona conference in 1822? What was not done that was a departure from past international actions? What actions did the Congress decided to take at the Verona conference in 1822? What was not done that was a departure from past international actions?

8 Section 3: The Conservative International Order What was the “Eastern Question”? What were the specific interests that the Congress/Concert powers had in Ottoman affairs? What was the “Eastern Question”? What were the specific interests that the Congress/Concert powers had in Ottoman affairs?

9 Section 3: The Conservative International Order By 1830, how had European political ambitions & the ideas of liberalism & nationalism begun to undermine the Ottoman Empire? By 1830, how had European political ambitions & the ideas of liberalism & nationalism begun to undermine the Ottoman Empire? Why was Greece able to win its independence from the Ottomans in ? Why was Greece able to win its independence from the Ottomans in ?

10 Section 3: The Conservative International Order Why did the Ottoman Empire willingly grant Serbia its independence in 1830? Why did the Ottoman Empire willingly grant Serbia its independence in 1830? What member of the Holy Alliance declared itself the formal protector or Serbia? Why? What member of the Holy Alliance declared itself the formal protector or Serbia? Why? Miloš Obrenović 1 st Prince of Serbia

11 Section 5: The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe What was the impact of the Decembrist Revolt in Russia after the death of Tsar Alexander I in 1825? What was the impact of the Decembrist Revolt in Russia after the death of Tsar Alexander I in 1825? What was Tsar Nicholas I’s policy of “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, & Nationalism”? Was this slogan the embodiment of the “Slavic Revival”? What was Tsar Nicholas I’s policy of “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, & Nationalism”? Was this slogan the embodiment of the “Slavic Revival”? Why did Belgium’s revolt win independence in 1830 for Belgium but the 1830 Polish revolt did not achieve the same for Poland? Why did Belgium’s revolt win independence in 1830 for Belgium but the 1830 Polish revolt did not achieve the same for Poland? Nicholas Constantine You can be the Tsar… No, really…you be the Tsar… WOULD SOMEONE PLEASE BE THE TSAR!

12 The Decembrist Uprising Nicholas I * Orthodoxy! * Autocracy! * Nationalism!

13 Section 5: The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe Why did the July Ordinances of Charles X in 1830 lead to revolt by the republicans & the abdication of the king? Why did the July Ordinances of Charles X in 1830 lead to revolt by the republicans & the abdication of the king? Why was King Louis- Philippe acceptable to both the Chamber of Deputies (controlled by the upper bourgeoisie) and the republicans who led the 1830 revolt? Why was King Louis- Philippe acceptable to both the Chamber of Deputies (controlled by the upper bourgeoisie) and the republicans who led the 1830 revolt? Louis-Philippe, King of the French Coat of Arms of Louis-Philippe

14 Section 5: The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe 1830 Belgium revolts against the Netherlands and becomes the Kingdom of Belgium. The new King of Belgium, Leopold, is installed because he was the uncle of Britain’s Queen Victoria and married the daughter of France’s Louis-Philippe.

15 In order to establish a buffer between France and Germany, the Congress of Vienna created a kingdom of the Netherlands by combining Holland and Belgium (the latter the former Austrian Netherlands). Belgium chafed under Dutch rule, however, and in 1830 the Catholic nobility and the middle-class liberals joined forces in an insurrection that resulted in the creation of the independent state of Belgium. Here, the two countries are caricatured as dogs on the same leash, Belgium resisting the constraint of Holland.

16 Section 5: The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe What two factors contributed to Britain avoiding revolution in the 1830s? What two factors contributed to Britain avoiding revolution in the 1830s? Why did Prime Ministers Grey & Peel push through the 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act? Why did Prime Ministers Grey & Peel push through the 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act? What changes did the 1832 Great Reform Bill make to the British electorate? What changes did the 1832 Great Reform Bill make to the British electorate? Lord Grey


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