6 What do you know about nutrition? True or False 1. Many foods are almost entirely water.2. Though a number of factors influence our food choices, taste and texture prevail.3. Adult diets generally meet Food Guide Pyramid recommendations.4. Americans are meeting recommendations for fruits and vegetables.5. The major cause of obesity in America is low thyroid gland activity.6. Changing habits is the single most important factor in maintaining weight loss.7. The more muscle tissue in a body, the higher its resting metabolism.
8 1. PROTEINSCOMPLETE – If food supplies enough amino acid - Ex. Lean meat, poultry w/o skin, fish, legumes, eggs, milk or yogurtINCOMPLETE – If food does not supply enough amino acid - Ex. Nuts or seeds, Legumes, Grains, Vegetables15-20% of total daily caloriesNo more than 35%
9 Top Contributors of Protein in the U.S. Diet: Beef—17%Poultry—14%Milk—8%Yeast Bread—7%Cheese—7%Fish/Shellfish—4%Pork (unprocessed)—3%Eggs—3%Pasta—3%Ham—2%Cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts—2%Dried Beans/lentils2%
10 Facts about Proteins Also classified as Amino Acids Human body requires 20 amino acids for the synthesis of proteinsThe body can make 12 (Nonessential) people do not have to get them from food, the body makes them8 essential amino acids that can only be obtained from foodProteins = 4 calories/gram
11 Functions Main component of muscles, organs, glands Every living cell and all body fluids, except bile and urine contain proteinThe cells of muscles, tendons, and ligamentsare maintained with proteinChildren and adolescents require more protein than others for growth, development, and maintenance
12 ConcernsA diet high in meat could cause an excessive saturated fat and cholesterol intakeA high protein diet may put a strain on the kidneysVegetarians are able to get enough protein if they eat proper plant proteins and legumes2-3 servings of protein will meet an individuals needs
13 Signs of Protein Deficiency If Protein is lacking in a child’s diet two things can result, a loss in energy or protein:Protein Deficiency (enlarged liver or edema)Food Energy Deficiency= (extreme loss of muscle and fat)
14 2. FATS Saturated The BAD Fat—usually solid at room temperature Red meats, milk, cheese, lunch meatsTrans Fat margarines, vegetable shortening, many fast foods, most commercial baked goods.Unsaturated :The GOOD Fat—usually liquid at room temperatureMonounsaturated olive, canola &peanut oils, most nuts, avocadosPolyunsaturated Corn, soybean, safflower and cottonseed oilsLimit Fats to 10-15%of daily intake (no more than 30%)
15 Facts about Fats Also known as lipids Fats = 9 calories/gram A family of organic compoundsNot soluble in water3 forms of lipids: Triglycerides,Phospholipids, and SterolsLiposuction=fat is sucked outFats = 9 calories/gramFats are the main storage formfor foods eaten in excess
16 Functions Energy Satiety—the satisfaction of feeling full after a mealHelp insulate your bodySupport and cushion your organsFats in your diet help your body absorb fat-soluble vitaminsAdds flavor and texture to foods
17 ConcernsIncrease your risk of heart disease if too much in you diet (LDL = LESS HEALTHY)Olive oil and canola oil may increase HDL – good cholesterol to benefit your heart (HDL = HEALTHY)Protects against some cancersAn obese person’s fat cells may be many times the size of a thin person’s
18 Which Foods Contribute to America’s Cholesterol Problem? These 5 foods contribute to about 70% of the food cholesterol in the U.S. Diet:Eggs %Beef %Poultry 12%Cheese %Milk %
22 Functions Carbohydrates are used as fuel Carbohydrates = 4 calories/gramFeeds the brain and the red blood cellsReduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, strokes, and cancer.
23 Facts You Should Know:A person consuming 2000 calories a day should eat no more than 10 teaspoons of added sugar a day.USDA surveys show that the average American consumes about 20 teaspoons of sugar a day.An average 12 oz. Can of Soda contains about 9 teaspoons of sugar.Diets high in added sugar have been linked to an increased risk of obesity, heart disease, and dental caries.
24 ConcernsExcess can cause an increase in the total caloric intake causing obesityDeficient carbs can cause a lack of calories (malnutrition), or excessive intake of fats to make up the calories
25 4. FIBER 20-35grams of your daily intake Soluble – Insoluble – Slows the body’s absorption of glucosebinds cholesterol-containing compounds in the intestineLowers blood cholesterol, lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseaseInsoluble –Binds water, making the feces pass more quickly, and easier through the large intestines
26 Food SourcesAll plants contain some kind of fiber that is indigestible by humansFruits, legumes, oats, barley, cereals, (soluble)Wheat, cereal, grain, vegetables, (insoluble)
27 Foods Highest in Dietary Fiber: Barley, whole grainBlack-eyed peasChickpeas (garbonzo beans)Kidney BeansLima BeansBrussel SproutsPsyllium Seeds (used as a laxative)
28 Functions Reduces heart disease Allows feces to pass easier Helps reduce and maintain other diseases
29 Benefits and Concerns Benefits: Concerns: Promotion of normal blood cholesterol concentrations (reduced risk of heart disease)Modulation of blood glucose concentrations (reduced risk of diabetes)Maintenance of healthy bowel function (reduced risk of bowel disease)Promotion of a healthy body weightConcerns:Excessively large stoolsFiber should come from food not supplementsSupplements should only come from a doctorBalance and moderation are the key principles
30 5. VITAMINSOrganic substances required in small amounts to regulate various processes within living cellsHumans need 13 Vitamins:4 are Fat Soluble – absorbed, transported, and stored in the body9 are Water Soluble – absorbed directly into the bloodstream, they travel freely
33 ConcernsA Deficient – night blindness, dry scaling skin, increased susceptibility to infections, anemia, loss of appetite, kidney stonesC Deficient – Scurvy, anemia, loosened teeth, infections, joint pain (because its found in tendons and ligaments), poor wound healing, hair loss, poor ironD Deficient – Bone deformities,bone softening, fractures in adults;Rickets in childrenK Deficient – Should never happen
34 MisconceptionIs it possible to have too much of a vitamin in your diet?Some vitamins can be toxic if too much is consumed. Occurs with fat-soluble vitamins, because excess water-soluble vitamins can be eliminated in urine.Too much vitamin D leads to weakness, nausea and vomiting, calcium build-up in soft tissues, and kidney impairment.
35 6. MINERALSInorganic elements you need small amounts to help regulate body functionsMinerals can dissolve in water, so methods of cooking like grilling, broiling and baking preserve more of the minerals in foods.The Body needs 17 Essential MineralsThe body needs about 100 mg of each of these minerals
37 ConcernsCalcium Deficiency – stunted growth in children, bone mineral loss in adults, urinary stonesSodium Deficiency – muscle weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, deficiency is rarely seenIron Deficiency – anemia (lack of iron), weakness, impaired immune functioning, gastrointestinal distress
38 WATER 60% of the body is made up of water The intake of water is necessary to replace the body’s water loss in urine and sweat (1ml for every kcal you burn)Drinking at least 6-8 glasses of water is sufficient in meeting those needsWater is also the nutrient that helps make up blood, the process of digestion removal of body wastes and regulates body temperatureDehydration – Not enough water in the body, effects performance
39 What is lactose intolerance? The inability to digest the carbohydrate of milkAlmost all mammals lose some of their ability to produce lactase as they age
40 Approximate %’s of adults with lactose intolerance: 90% Asian Americans80% Native Americans80% African Americans70% Mediterranean peoples60% Inuits (most Alaskan natives)50% Hispanics25% U. S. Population<15% Northern Europeans