Presentation on theme: "What do you know about nutrition? True or False 1. Many foods are almost entirely water. 2. Though a number of factors influence our food choices,"— Presentation transcript:
What do you know about nutrition? True or False 1. Many foods are almost entirely water. 2. Though a number of factors influence our food choices, taste and texture prevail. 3. Adult diets generally meet Food Guide Pyramid recommendations. 4. Americans are meeting recommendations for fruits and vegetables. 5. The major cause of obesity in America is low thyroid gland activity. 6. Changing habits is the single most important factor in maintaining weight loss. 7. The more muscle tissue in a body, the higher its resting metabolism.
SIX ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS
1. PROTEINS COMPLETE – If food supplies enough amino acid - Ex. Lean meat, poultry w/o skin, fish, legumes, eggs, milk or yogurt INCOMPLETE – If food does not supply enough amino acid - Ex. Nuts or seeds, Legumes, Grains, Vegetables 15-20% of total daily calories No more than 35%
Top Contributors of Protein in the U.S. Diet: Beef—17% Poultry—14% Milk—8% Yeast Bread—7% Cheese—7% Fish/Shellfish—4% Pork (unprocessed)—3% Eggs—3% Pasta—3% Ham—2% Cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts—2% Dried Beans/lentils2%
Facts about Proteins Also classified as Amino Acids Human body requires 20 amino acids for the synthesis of proteins The body can make 12 (Nonessential) people do not have to get them from food, the body makes them 8 essential amino acids that can only be obtained from food Proteins = 4 calories/gram
Functions Main component of muscles, organs, glands Every living cell and all body fluids, except bile and urine contain protein The cells of muscles, tendons, and ligaments are maintained with protein Children and adolescents require more protein than others for growth, development, and maintenance
Concerns A diet high in meat could cause an excessive saturated fat and cholesterol intake A high protein diet may put a strain on the kidneys Vegetarians are able to get enough protein if they eat proper plant proteins and legumes 2-3 servings of protein will meet an individuals needs
Signs of Protein Deficiency If Protein is lacking in a child’s diet two things can result, a loss in energy or protein: Protein Deficiency (enlarged liver or edema) Food Energy Deficiency= (extreme loss of muscle and fat)
2. FATS Saturated The BAD Fat—usually solid at room temperature Red meats, milk, cheese, lunch meats Trans Fat margarines, vegetable shortening, many fast foods, most commercial baked goods. Unsaturated :The GOOD Fat—usually liquid at room temperature Monounsaturated olive, canola &peanut oils, most nuts, avocados Polyunsaturated Corn, soybean, safflower and cottonseed oils Limit Fats to 10-15% of daily intake (no more than 30%)
Facts about Fats Also known as lipids A family of organic compounds Not soluble in water 3 forms of lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols Liposuction=fat is sucked out Fats = 9 calories/gram Fats are the main storage form for foods eaten in excess
Functions Energy Satiety—the satisfaction of feeling full after a meal Help insulate your body Support and cushion your organs Fats in your diet help your body absorb fat-soluble vitamins Adds flavor and texture to foods
Concerns Increase your risk of heart disease if too much in you diet (LDL = LESS HEALTHY) Olive oil and canola oil may increase HDL – good cholesterol to benefit your heart (HDL = HEALTHY) Protects against some cancers An obese person’s fat cells may be many times the size of a thin person’s
Which Foods Contribute to America’s Cholesterol Problem? These 5 foods contribute to about 70% of the food cholesterol in the U.S. Diet: Eggs 30% Beef 16% Poultry 12% Cheese 6% Milk 5%
Major Sources of Trans Fat in U.S. Diet
3. CARBOHYDRATES 45-65% of your daily calories should come from Carbohydrates Simple – Sugars Ex. Fruits, milk, milk products, vegetables, candy, honey, table sugar, syrups Complex – Starches Ex. Breads, cereals, starchy vegetables, rice, pastas
Functions Carbohydrates are used as fuel Carbohydrates = 4 calories/gram Feeds the brain and the red blood cells Reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, strokes, and cancer.
Facts You Should Know: A person consuming 2000 calories a day should eat no more than 10 teaspoons of added sugar a day. USDA surveys show that the average American consumes about 20 teaspoons of sugar a day. An average 12 oz. Can of Soda contains about 9 teaspoons of sugar. Diets high in added sugar have been linked to an increased risk of obesity, heart disease, and dental caries.
Concerns Excess can cause an increase in the total caloric intake causing obesity Deficient carbs can cause a lack of calories (malnutrition), or excessive intake of fats to make up the calories
4. FIBER 20-35grams of your daily intake Soluble – Slows the body’s absorption of glucose binds cholesterol-containing compounds in the intestine Lowers blood cholesterol, lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease Insoluble – Binds water, making the feces pass more quickly, and easier through the large intestines
Food Sources All plants contain some kind of fiber that is indigestible by humans Fruits, legumes, oats, barley, cereals, (soluble) Wheat, cereal, grain, vegetables, (insoluble)
Foods Highest in Dietary Fiber: Barley, whole grain Black-eyed peas Chickpeas (garbonzo beans) Kidney Beans Lima Beans Brussel Sprouts Psyllium Seeds (used as a laxative)
Functions Reduces heart disease Allows feces to pass easier Helps reduce and maintain other diseases
Benefits and Concerns Benefits: Promotion of normal blood cholesterol concentrations (reduced risk of heart disease) Modulation of blood glucose concentrations (reduced risk of diabetes) Maintenance of healthy bowel function (reduced risk of bowel disease) Promotion of a healthy body weight Concerns: Excessively large stools Fiber should come from food not supplements Supplements should only come from a doctor Balance and moderation are the key principles
5. VITAMINS Organic substances required in small amounts to regulate various processes within living cells Humans need 13 Vitamins: 4 are Fat Soluble – absorbed, transported, and stored in the body 9 are Water Soluble – absorbed directly into the bloodstream, they travel freely
Concerns A Deficient – night blindness, dry scaling skin, increased susceptibility to infections, anemia, loss of appetite, kidney stones C Deficient – Scurvy, anemia, loosened teeth, infections, joint pain (because its found in tendons and ligaments), poor wound healing, hair loss, poor iron D Deficient – Bone deformities, bone softening, fractures in adults; Rickets in children K Deficient – Should never happen
Misconception Is it possible to have too much of a vitamin in your diet? Some vitamins can be toxic if too much is consumed. Occurs with fat-soluble vitamins, because excess water-soluble vitamins can be eliminated in urine. Too much vitamin D leads to weakness, nausea and vomiting, calcium build-up in soft tissues, and kidney impairment.
6. MINERALS Inorganic elements you need small amounts to help regulate body functions Minerals can dissolve in water, so methods of cooking like grilling, broiling and baking preserve more of the minerals in foods. The Body needs 17 Essential Minerals The body needs about 100 mg of each of these minerals
Concerns Calcium Deficiency – stunted growth in children, bone mineral loss in adults, urinary stones Sodium Deficiency – muscle weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, deficiency is rarely seen Iron Deficiency – anemia (lack of iron), weakness, impaired immune functioning, gastrointestinal distress
WATER 60% of the body is made up of water The intake of water is necessary to replace the body’s water loss in urine and sweat (1ml for every kcal you burn) Drinking at least 6-8 glasses of water is sufficient in meeting those needs Water is also the nutrient that helps make up blood, the process of digestion removal of body wastes and regulates body temperature Dehydration – Not enough water in the body, effects performance
What is lactose intolerance? The inability to digest the carbohydrate of milk Almost all mammals lose some of their ability to produce lactase as they age
Approximate %’s of adults with lactose intolerance: 90% Asian Americans 80% Native Americans 80% African Americans 70% Mediterranean peoples 60% Inuits (most Alaskan natives) 50% Hispanics 25% U. S. Population <15% Northern Europeans