A nutrient is a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body. Nutrition is the study of how your body uses the nutrients. Malnutrition is a lack of the right proportions of nutrients over an extended period. A person who is malnourished may be underweight or overweight.
You can divide the nutrients into six groups: Carbohydrates – simple and compex Fats Proteins Vitamins – Water Soluble: C and Bs – Fat Soluble: A, D, E and K Minerals – Macro, need more than 100 mg daily – Micro, need less than 100 mg daily Water
Fortified foods are a food to which nutrients are added in amounts greater than what would naturally occur in the food.
Carbohydrates Body’s chief source of energy. – Three main types: sugar (glucose, fructose, gallactose, sucrose, lactose and maltose), starch and fiber Fiber is a form of complex carbohydrates from plants that humans can’t digest. Doesn’t provide the body w/energy but provides bulk and promotes normal bowel function.
Sources: Sugars: sweets (not too many), fruits Starch: bread, cereal, pasta, rice corn, potatoes, beans, peas Fiber: fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grain cereal products Deficiencies are rare. Too many = weight gain
Fats Important energy source. Belong to a group called lipids. Cholesterol is a fatlike substance found in every cell of the body.
Functions: provide energy, store energy, carry fat-soluble vitamins, carry flavor to make foods taste good, fat under skin provides insulation Deficiencies are rare in U.S. We need to limit excess fats
Proteins Made up of small units called amino acids. There are 20 amino acids: 9 of these are considered essential amino acids. The body cannot make some essential amino acids 11 of these are non-essential amino acids, body can make them fast to meet the needs
Complete proteins contain all 9 essential amino acids: animal foods and soybeans Complete proteins support growth and normal maintenance of body tissue. Incomplete proteins will NOT support growth and normal maintenance of body tissue.
Water Function: 50 to 75% of body is water found both inside and outside of cells – Aids in proper digestion, cell growth and repair – Help regulate body temperature.
Sources:54% comes from liquids you drink 37% comes from foods Excretes through kidneys. Most people need about 8 glasses of water a day.
Digestion Digestion is the process of breaking down food into simple compounds the body can use. Digestion starts in the mouth and ends in the rectum. Peristalsis: waves of muscle contractions that push food through the digestive tract.
Absorption & Metabolism Absorption is the process of taking in nutrients and making them part of the body Metabolism: the chemical process that takes place in the cells after the body absorbs nutrients.