Presentation on theme: "6 Classes of Nutrients. 6 Nutrients Carbohydrates Proteins Fats (Lipids) Vitamins Minerals Water These 6 nutrients you body NEEDS to function properly!!!"— Presentation transcript:
6 Classes of Nutrients
6 Nutrients Carbohydrates Proteins Fats (Lipids) Vitamins Minerals Water These 6 nutrients you body NEEDS to function properly!!!
Carbohydrates What are they? –Starches & sugars found in foods What is their function? –Bodys preferred source of energy What if I dont get enough? –Decreased energy If I get too much? –Can be stored as fat
Types of Carbohydrates SIMPLE –S–Sugars –P–Provide quick energy –S–Sweet to the taste: honey, fruit, candy, etc. COMPLEX –S–Starches/fibers –P–Provide long-lasting energy –E–Ex) potatoes, pasta, bread, etc.
Carbohydrates in your diet … Carbohydrates should account for 45-65% of your daily diet. 1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories of energy.
Proteins What are they? –Nutrients which build & maintain body tissues What is their function? –Build & maintain: muscle, skin, hair, nails, etc. What if I dont get enough? –Decrease in muscle & tissue maintenance If I get too much? - Stored as fat
Types of Protein Complete –C–Contain all essential amino acids –C–Come from animal/soy products –C–Complete proteins are what your body wants! Incomplete –L–Lack some amino acids –C–Can combine to make complete proteins Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins!
Proteins in your diet … Proteins should account for 10-35% of your daily diet. 1 gram of protein = 4 calories of energy.
Fats (Lipids) What are the main functions of fats? –Provides energy –Cushions organs –Carries vitamins (A,D,E,K) -Insulator -Provides taste What happens if I get too much fat? - Weight gain - Increased risk of heart disease
Cholesterol A lipid (fat) found in all animal tissues Cholesterol makes vitamin D, cell membranes, and hormones Types of cholesterol: –LDL = bad cholesterol –HDL = good cholesterol
Types of Fats Saturated –F–Fats coming from animal products –S–Solid at room temperature –I–Increase risk of heart disease Unsaturated –F–Fats coming from plant products –L–Liquid at room temperature (oils) –B–Better for your heart than saturated fats Trans Fat = unsaturated fatty acids produced when vegetable oil is processed in to margarine and shortening … increase risk of heart disease. **Often in restaurant foods!
Fats in your diet … Fats should account for 25-35% of your daily diet. 1 gram of fat = 9 calories of energy.
Vitamins What are they? –Compounds needed in small amounts to regulate body processes and allow growth What is their function? –Help with digestion, absorption, & metabolism Each vitamin is needed and provides a specific function
Types of Vitamins Water Soluble –D–Dissolve in water –N–Needed for energy release –T–Too many water soluble vitamins are excreted in urine Fat Soluble –D–Dissolve in fat –R–Remain in the body for long periods of time –4–4 fat-soluble vitamins: A,D,E,K –T–Too many can lead to a toxic build up – stored in fatty tissues, liver, & kidneys Vitamins do NOT provide energy!!!
Minerals What are they? –Inorganic compounds (things that come from the earth) that are needed in small amounts What is their function? –Regulate body processes Ex) bone formation Each mineral is needed! Minerals do NOT provide energy!!!
Water What are the main functions of water? –Transports nutrients –Carries away wastes –Moistens eyes, mouth, nose; hydrates skin –Forms main component of body fluids –Acts as an insulator –Protects against heat exhaustion –Lubricates joints –Helps with digestion
Dehydration Individuals should drink 8+ glasses of water/day to prevent dehydration Signs of dehydration: –Thirst, dry mouth, flushed skin, fatigue, headache, impaired physical performance, increased body temp, dizziness, weakness, muscle spasms, delirium, poor blood circulation, failing kidney function, and possibly death
Water 60% of your body is water!!! Your daily water intake must balance your bodys use Caffeine actually dehydrates you – it increases the amount of water excreted in urine Water does NOT provide energy!