2 6 Nutrients Carbohydrates Proteins Fats (Lipids) Vitamins Minerals WaterThese 6 nutrients you body NEEDS to function properly!!!
3 Carbohydrates What are they? What is their function? Starches & sugars found in foodsWhat is their function?Body’s preferred source of energyWhat if I don’t get enough?Decreased energyIf I get too much?Can be stored as fat
4 Types of Carbohydrates SIMPLESugarsProvide quick energySweet to the taste: honey, fruit, candy, etc.COMPLEXStarches/fibersProvide long-lasting energyEx) potatoes, pasta, bread, etc.
5 Carbohydrates in your diet … Carbohydrates should account for 45-65% of your daily diet.1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories of energy.
6 Proteins What are they? What is their function? Nutrients which build & maintain body tissuesWhat is their function?Build & maintain: muscle, skin, hair, nails, etc.What if I don’t get enough?Decrease in muscle & tissue maintenanceIf I get too much?- Stored as fat
7 Types of Protein Complete Incomplete Contain all essential amino acids Come from animal/soy productsComplete proteins are what your body wants!IncompleteLack some amino acidsCan combine to make complete proteinsAmino Acids are the building blocks of proteins!
8 Proteins in your diet …Proteins should account for 10-35% of your daily diet.1 gram of protein = 4 calories of energy.
9 Fats (Lipids) What are the main functions of fats? Provides energyCushions organsCarries vitamins (A,D,E,K)InsulatorProvides tasteWhat happens if I get too much fat?- Weight gain- Increased risk of heart disease
10 Cholesterol A lipid (fat) found in all animal tissues Cholesterol makes vitamin D, cell membranes, and hormonesTypes of cholesterol:LDL = “bad” cholesterolHDL = “good” cholesterol
11 Types of Fats Saturated Unsaturated Fats coming from animal products Solid at room temperatureIncrease risk of heart diseaseUnsaturatedFats coming from plant productsLiquid at room temperature (oils)Better for your heart than saturated fatsTrans Fat = unsaturated fatty acids produced when vegetable oil is processed in to margarine and shortening … increase risk of heart disease. **Often in restaurant foods!
12 Fats in your diet … Fats should account for 25-35% of your daily diet. 1 gram of fat = 9 calories of energy.
13 Vitamins What are they? What is their function? Compounds needed in small amounts to regulate body processes and allow growthWhat is their function?Help with digestion, absorption, & metabolismEach vitamin is needed and provides a specific function
14 Types of Vitamins Water Soluble Fat Soluble Dissolve in water Needed for energy releaseToo many water soluble vitamins are excreted in urineFat SolubleDissolve in fatRemain in the body for long periods of time4 fat-soluble vitamins: A,D,E,KToo many can lead to a toxic build up – stored in fatty tissues, liver, & kidneysVitamins do NOT provide energy!!!
15 Minerals What are they? What is their function? Inorganic compounds (things that come from the earth) that are needed in small amountsWhat is their function?Regulate body processesEx) bone formationEach mineral is needed!Minerals do NOT provide energy!!!
16 Water What are the main functions of water? Transports nutrients Carries away wastesMoistens eyes, mouth, nose; hydrates skinForms main component of body fluidsActs as an insulatorProtects against heat exhaustionLubricates jointsHelps with digestion
17 DehydrationIndividuals should drink 8+ glasses of water/day to prevent dehydrationSigns of dehydration:Thirst, dry mouth, flushed skin, fatigue, headache, impaired physical performance, increased body temp, dizziness, weakness, muscle spasms, delirium, poor blood circulation, failing kidney function, and possibly death
18 Water 60% of your body is water!!! Your daily water intake must balance your body’s useCaffeine actually dehydrates you – it increases the amount of water excreted in urineWater does NOT provide energy!