Presentation on theme: "Nutrition and Your Health"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nutrition and Your Health Chapter 5: Lessons 1 & 2
2 What is Nutrition?The process by which the body takes in and uses food.Good nutrition enhances your quality of life and helps prevent diseases.Provides you with the calories and nutrients your body needs for maximum energy and wellness.
3 CaloriesUnits of heat that measure the energy used by the body and the energy that foods supply to the bodyThis energy fuels everything you do, from exercising and playing sports to doing your homework and talking with friends.
4 NutrientsSubstances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy.Making healthy food choices will provide your body with the nutrients it needs to help you look your best and perform your best.
5 Hunger vs. AppetiteHunger is a natural physical drive that protects you from starvation.Appetite is a desire, rather than a need, to eat.
7 Six Basic NutrientsCarbohydratesFatsProteinVitaminsMineralsWater
8 Carbohydrates Starches and sugars present in foods The body’s primary energy source60% of dietSimple vs. Complex
9 Simple Carbohydrates Sugars Fructose (fruit) and lactose (milk)Sucrose (occurs naturally in many plants and refined to make table sugar)Sugars are added to many manufactured food products
10 Complex Carbohydrates StarchesFound in whole grains, seeds, nuts, legumes (dried peas and beans)The body must break down complex carbohydrates into simple carbohydrates before it can use them for energy
11 Role of Carbohydrates Converted to glucose (sugar) Body’s main source of energyGlucose that is not used right away is stored in the lover and muscles as a starch-like substance called glycogen.When more energy is needed, glycogen is converted back to glucose.Taking in more carbohydrates than your body needs (or can store as glycogen) is then stored as body fat.
12 Fats Secondary energy source 30% of diet BUT, fats provide more than twice the energy of carbohydrates or proteins30% of dietLipid – fatty substance that does not dissolve in waterSaturated vs. Unsaturated
13 Role of Fats Source of energy Transport vitamins A, D, E, and K in your bloodServe as a source of linoleic acid – essential fatty acid that is needed for growth and healthy skinAdd flavor and texture to foodHelp satisfy hunger, but high in calories
14 Proteins Builds and repairs tissue Secondary energy source 10% of your diet
15 Proteins Made of long chains of substances called amino acids. Your body can’t manufacture 9 of the 20 different amino acidsThe other 9 are called essential amino acids that you must get from the foods you eat.
16 Complete vs. Incomplete Proteins Contain adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids.Animal products (fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese and yogurt, soybean products)Incomplete –Lack one or more of the essential amino acidsBeans, peas, nuts and whole grains
17 Role of ProteinsBody uses proteins to make enzymes (substances that control the rate of chemical reactions in your cells), hormones (regulate the activities of different cells) and antibodies (help identify and destroy disease-causing organisms).Energy supply
18 Required for growth and proper body functions A,D,E,K (fat soluble) VitaminsRequired for growth and proper body functionsA,D,E,K (fat soluble)B,C (water soluble)
19 VitaminsCompounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients.Water soluble vs. Fat soluble
20 Water SolubleWater-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and pass easily into the blood during digestion.The body doesn’t store these vitamins, so you need to replenish them regularly through the foods you eat.Figure 5.1 (pg. 119)
21 Fat Soluble Absorbed, stored, and transported in fat Your body stores these vitamins in your fatty tissue, liver and kidneysExcess build-up of these vitamins can be toxicFigure 5.2 (pg. 120)
22 MineralsNeeded for body processes (i.e.: muscle contractions, bone strength, etc.)
23 MineralsSubstances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and for regulating many vital processes.CalciumPhosphorousMagnesiumIron**
24 Most important nutrient Most abundant nutrient 60-70% of our body WaterMost important nutrientMost abundant nutrient60-70% of our body8 cups a day!!!
29 Calculations ** Carbohydrates and Proteins = 4 calories per gram Alcohol =7 calories per gramFat =9 calories per gram
30 Empty Caloric Food **High in caloriesLow in nutrients
31 CholesterolWaxy, fat-like substance found in saturated fats from animal products
32 Saturated Fats Solid at room temperature Animal sources High intake of saturated fats is associated with increased risk of heart disease
33 Unsaturated Fats Usually liquids (oils) at room temperature Found in vegetable sourcesHealthier choice!Linked to reduced risk of heart diseaseMonounsaturated fatty acids –Liquid at room temp. but start to solidify when refrigeratedPolyunsaturated fatty acids –Liquid at both room temp. and refrigerated
34 Lipoproteins (Two Types) Low Density (LDL)Carries cholesterol from the liver to the tissuesDeposits cholesterol on the lining of the arteriesDietary intake affected“Bad cholesterol”High Density (HDL)Gathers & carries excess cholesterol back to the liverExercise affected“Good cholesterol”
35 Fiber Indigestible complex carbohydrate Found in tough, stringy parts of vegetables, fruits and whole grainsHelps move waste through the digestive system and helps prevent intestinal problemsReduces risk of heart diseaseMay help reduce risk of diabetes20-35 grams per day
36 Think over your diet, what are some things you could add to it or eliminate to make it healthier?
37 As a review of the six basic nutrients, complete pg. 73 in your WB
38 Answer these questions: What is an empty calorie?How many glasses of water per day?What mineral is supplied by dairy products?What is a source of complex carbs?What are fat-soluble vitamins?What is hunger?What type of fats are animals fats and tropical oils?Which mineral is used to resist infection?What is “bad cholesterol?”What is the most abundant nutrient in the body?