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Crusades, Reconquista, and Mongol invasions Carl W. Ernst Reli 180, Introduction to Islamic Civilization.

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Presentation on theme: "Crusades, Reconquista, and Mongol invasions Carl W. Ernst Reli 180, Introduction to Islamic Civilization."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Crusades, Reconquista, and Mongol invasions Carl W. Ernst Reli 180, Introduction to Islamic Civilization

3 Last time: Internal fractures of the post-caliphate world 1.Buyid Sultanate 2.Turks, especially Saljuqs 3.Fatimid Empire 4.Western Mediterranean: Almoravid Berber empire 2

4 External attacks on Muslim- ruled realms, Crusader invasions by Frankish forces Conquest of much of Andalus by armies of the Christian rulers of Northern Spain Mongol (“pagan”) invasions throughout Nile-to-Oxus region (halted by Turkish armies in Egypt and India)

5 4 major Crusades, 2 sequels

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7 First Crusade, Only successful Crusade Not requested by Eastern Christians; Alexius in 1095 asked Pope for soldiers Mixed motives of “armed pilgrimage” Hostility of Franks towards Byzantines Fatimids offer alliance to Crusaders 1099 – Jerusalem captured, massacre What is the role of religion here?

8 2 nd and 3 rd Crusades

9 Opponents of the crusaders Zengis in Syria and Iraq capture Edessa 2 nd Crusade ( ) fails to take Damascus Weakened Fatimids play off Franks against Zengis, who conquer Egypt Salah al-Din (Saladin, a Kurd) ends Fatimid rule 3 rd Crusade ( ) disappointing; Salah al-Din more admired than Richard

10 Ironies of Crusades No efforts at understanding No unified “Muslim” resistance 4 th Crusade sacks Constantinople 1204, permanent division between Latin and Orthodox Christians

11 Cecil B. DeMille’s “The Crusades”

12 Loss of Andalus (“reconquista” after the fact) Berber empire of Almoravids Almoravids (from al- Murabit, “related to the fortified sanctuary”): religious inspiration Adopted Maliki school of law Veiling issues with Berbers

13 2 nd Berber empire: Almohads Almohads (al-Muwahhidun, “Unitarians”), new movement rejecting previous Berber customs as pagan Ibn Tumart on figurative interpretation of divine attributes; claims to be Mahdi These claims rejected by caliph al- Ma’mun in 1230: Jesus as Mahdi Pope declares crusade vs. Spain Andalusian Muslims under Christian rule

14 El Cid “Al-Sayyid “Spanish Realistic epic in comparison with “Song of Roland”

15 Royal style

16 Chivalry without borders (lecture tonight at 6 pm)

17 The Alcazar of Pedro the Cruel (1351) Seville

18 Gateway of Pedro (detail)

19 Patio del Yeso

20 The motto of Granada: “There is no victor but God”

21 Christian arabesque

22 Arabic inscriptions for Sultan Don Pedro (1) “Glory to our master, Sultan Don Pedro, may he be exalted!”

23 Arabic inscriptions for Sultan Don Pedro (2) “Glory to our master, Sultan Don Pedro! May God aid and defend him!”

24 Toledo Synagogue interior

25 “Party Kings” (reyes al-taifas)

26 Collapse of Great Saljuqs Brief revival of Abbasid caliphate Khwarazm-Shah aims at empire Isma`ili Imam at Alamut declares Resurrection (1164); successor becomes a Sunni Mongols avenge an insult by invading (1219)

27 Chinggis Khan descendants in Iran – “Il-Khans” – become Muslims Destruction of caliphate, Assassins Artisans preserved


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