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New Forms of Political Authority Carl Ernst Reli 180, Introduction to Islamic Civilization.

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1 New Forms of Political Authority Carl Ernst Reli 180, Introduction to Islamic Civilization

2 Challenges to Islamic civilization, Sophisticated cultural, religious, intellectual, and economic achievements Three Caliphs Sunni Umayyad in Córdoba Shi`i Fatimid in North Africa Powerless Sunni `Abbasid in Baghdad, under “protection” of Shi`i Buyid princes Three centuries of immense cultural productivity marred by spectacular violence 2

3 Quick outline 1.Buyid Sultanate 2.Turks, especially Saljuqs 3.Fatimid Empire 4.Western Mediterranean: Almoravid Berbers 3

4 1. Buyid Sultanate “sultan” (Arabic “proof” [of God on His earth]), title adopted by sub-caliphal rulers Use of tax farming to pay military Public rituals of Shi`ism 10 Muharram (`Ashura), marking Karbala = 8 January Dhu al-Hijjah (Ghadir Khumm) = 16 December 2008 Prosperity in Persia, nomadic resurgence 4

5 2. Arrival of Turks, A quasi- ethnic term for nomadic groups from Central Asia 5

6 Mahmud of Ghazna’s state ( ) 6

7 Characteristics of Turkish states Waves of migration Mahmud raids India’s temple cities (loot) Seeks recognition from the Caliph: Sunni legitimacy Patronage of Persian culture and poetry: Persian kingship Commissions Shah Namah (Book of Kings) by Firdausi (1010), longest epic by a single author (100,000 lines) 7

8 illustrations 8 Gayumars, the first man in Iranian myth, enthroned in his kingdom (from the Shah Tahmasp album of 1522)

9 Saljuqs, from nomads to empire builders Gradual conquest of Persia and Iraq Internal conflicts of Turkish elite Opposition from Fatimid agents Tughril captures Baghdad 1057 Nomadic raiders on Byzantine frontier: Battle of Manzikert (1071) Turkish penetration of Anatolia Persian traditions: Nizam al-Mulk’s Book of Government 9

10 10

11 3. Fatimid Empire Consolidation in Maghrib (“the West”) leads to conquest of Egypt in 969 Isma`il now the official ancestor of Caliphs Wide-ranging missionary program in Central Asia and Indus Valley Christians and Jews have opportunities Al-Hakim claims divinity  Druze faith (concealment) 11

12 Problems for Fatimids Growth of trade in Mediterranean, Red Sea route to India Import of Turkish cavalry, friction with Berbers Succession dispute: Nizar vs. Musta`li Nizari Isma`ilis (“Assassins”) create revolutionary state and fortresses (Alamut) 12

13 “Omar Khayyam” with Assassin chief, Hasan-i Sabah Cheesy Hollywood “Omar Khayyam” film (1957) depicts Isma`ilis as commies 13

14 4. Western Mediterranean Norman invasion of Arab Sicily 1034, brief cultural synthesis Hilali Arab tribes migrate west from Egypt Maghrib turns Sunni Economic decline Religious empire of Almoravids among Berbers Collapse of Umayyad caliphate, rule of Andalus from Maghrib 14

15 15

16 Internal fractures of the post- caliphate world 1.Buyid Sultanate 2.Turks, especially Saljuqs 3.Fatimid Empire 4.Western Mediterranean: Almoravid Berbers 16


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