Presentation on theme: "Building a Muslim Empire"— Presentation transcript:
1 Building a Muslim Empire Can it be done after the death of Muhammad?
2 Early Challenges to Islam Muhammad dies without naming a successorEventually the community agrees to Abu Bakr- Muhammad’s father-in-law and early convert to Islam, should be the first caliph, or successor to Muhammad.Bakr tells the faithful, “If you worship Muhammad, Muhammad is dead. If you worship God, God is alive.”
3 Arabs Unite under Islam Some Arabs refuse to follow Abu and withdraw their loyalty to Islam.Battles between tribes begin but Abu is able to reunite the Muslims.Now they begin military campaigns to convert the remaining Arab tribes to Islam.
4 Early VictoriesByzantines and Persians (2 great empires) fighting for control of Arab lands.But now with the Arabs united they conquer parts of the Byzantine empire and defeat the Persians.The Arabs take over Palestine and Jerusalem.
5 Divisions emerge within Islam SunniBelieve any good Muslim could lead the community. Later compromise that the leader should come from Muhammad’s tribe. The successor is called a caliph. This compromise group is the majority of Muslims today. 90%ShiiteBelieved that Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, should be his successor. He and his wife are divinely inspired religious leaders. 10%I need to know this!!
6 What divides them? Same Believe in the same God. Look to the Quran for guidance.Follow the Pillars of Islam.DifferentReligious practice- amount of prayerLaw- Sunnis more liberal and want leaders to be electedDaily life- marriage rules and inheritance
7 Another group- SufisSufis- Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation, fasting and other rituals.Carried the faith to remote villages.Whirling dervishes dance as a form of prayer.Let’s watch
8 Umayyad Caliphs Build an Empire After death of Ali, a Meccan clan sets up the Umayyad caliphate- a dynasty of Sunni caliphs that will rule the Muslim empire until 750.Many conquests from Spain to India.
9 Expanding the Muslim Empire Conquer N. Africa711- conquer Spain731- parts of FranceFail to take over the Byzantine capital of Constantinople.
10 Reasons for Muslim Success Persian and Byzantine empires weakening.Muslims seen as liberators from older harsh empires.Bold fighting methods with the camel and horse cavalry.Muslim armies had a desire to glorify their religion.
11 Conquered People Are Treated Fairly Taxed non-MuslimsChristians, Jews allowed to practice their own faith and follow their own laws.Jews and Christians play key roles as officials, doctors and translators.But they urged Arab settlers to separate themselves and this created an Arab upper-class.People liked the idea that there was equality of all believers, regardless of race, gender, class and wealth
12 Decline of the Umayyad Caliphate ProblemsHad to adapt from desert living to ruling large cities.Arabs given more privilegesProblems between rich and poorLavish lifestyle of the caliphs
13 Rise of the AbbasidsDiscontented Muslims find a leader in Abu al-Abbas.Captures DamascusKills Umayyad familyHe then founded the Abbasid dynasty which lasts until 1258.
14 Changes Dynasty based on equality of all Muslims Stopped military conquestsDiscrimination of non-Arab Muslims endedEncouraged learningCapital moved to Baghdad
15 Baghdad- the new capital Walls formed a circle with the palace in the middleBig in size and wealthMany markets, gardens and mosques.Domes and minarets- slender towers of the mosques loomed overhead5 times a day they climb to the tops of the minarets and call the faithful to prayer.
16 Muslim culture in Spain One surviving member of the Umayyad family goes to Spain and starts an independent Muslim stateTolerant of other religionsThe fortified palace of Alhambra built
17 Muslim Empire Declines Power fading in Egypt and elsewhereShiite’s coming to power in placesInvasions leading to chaos
18 Seljuk Turks take control Moving in from central AsiaSeljuk sultan- ruler controls BaghdadConflicts develop and prevent Christian pilgrims from traveling to JerusalemThis leads to the first Crusade
19 Now it’s the Mongols1216 the Mongols and Genghis Khan move across SW Asia1258 Baghdad burned and lootedMongols would later adopt Islam