The Spread of Islam: main phases 1. First phase – to c. 660 (end of the first fitna) Syria, Iraq, most of Iran, Egypt and N. Africa to Tripoli (see previous session) 2. Second phase – c. 660-c720 Rest of Iran, into Central Asia, Sind, rest of North Africa, Spain (see previous session) 3. Third phase – c 1000-1600 Anatolia/Balkans: 1071-1453 (Fall of Constantinople) Central Asia: further north India: 1030( Lahore; Delhi, 1209) – c 1500 Southeast Asia: c 1290 – c 1550 Sub-Sahara Africa: 11th century – 16th century and continuing (parts of E. Africa earlier)
Intrusions and retreats Crusades: 1099-1291 Relatively unimportant at the time, more important for “Franks” Mongols 1227-1260 Massive disruption; Mongols eventually converted and Islamicized Spain 1085-1492 “Reconquista”; very important for Spain; less so for most of the Islamic world
Table of dynasties from 7 th century AD (1 st H) to 16 th century AD (10 th H)
Main Ethnic Groups (esp. in central Islamic lands) “O people, we have created you from a male and a female and made you nations and tribes, so that you may come to know each other. Certainly the most noble of you in God’s sight is the one who most fears Him. God is Wise and All-knowing.” (Qur’an 49:13) “We have made it a recitation (Qur’an) in Arabic so that you may understand.” (Qur’an 43:3)
Arab Original Muslims Dominant through Umayyad period Arabic continues the main language for ritual and scholarship. Persian Converted early Persian ideas about government and administration influential from later Umayyad period on Persian language and culture reasserts itself from 9th century on. Becomes the main language of culture in Persian and Indian areas. Important in Ottoman, Safavid and Moghal empires. Important language for Sufism.
Turk Mamlukes in Abbasid empire from c 800. Turkish dynasties: Saljuks, Ottomans, Uzbeks and others Turkish becomes an administrative, literary and Sufi language Mongol Invaded Islamic lands. Converted to Islam Il-Khans ruled to 1370 Continuing influence on government and culture “Turco-Mongol” dynasties (e.g. Mughals) Others include: Berber (N. Africa and Andalus) Kurd (e.g. Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi al-Takriti) Circassian (from the Caucasus, many were Manlukes, esp in Egypt and Syria 1382-1517) Indian ethnic groups Malays African ethnic groups
Outline of political History (Mainly the Central Lands) Later Umayyads Administrative reforms. More forceful control of tribes. Independent scholars: of Qur’an, ḥ ad ī th, beginnings of Fiqh, Kalam Disaffection of maw ā l ī and Arab tribes. Early Abbasids (750-945) Capital shifted to Baghdad Persian ways continue to be adopted Administration more complex – waz ī r (vizier) Islamic high culture develops Sunni collections of ḥ ad ī th and basic works of fiqh Mi ḥ na: ‘ulam ā ’ authority strengthened Translations of Greek philosophical works Recruit Turkish Mamlukes (840-) Caliphs lose effective power in provinces by 935
Ribat, Sousse, Tunisia. Founded in 821. Ribats were forts and residences for warriors who both engaged on devotional practices and fought in jihad, defending the city (in this case from Christians on the other side of the Mediterranean) and propagating the faith within in the country.
Independent realms (some nominally recognized the Abbasid caliph): Andalus (711-1492) Umayyads (756-1031) Egypt: Tulunids (868-905) Iran (from 821): Saffarids (873-900) and Samanids (900-99) stimulate Persian culture.
Inside the Mosque of Ahmad Ibn Tulun, Cairo, 9th century. Ibn Tulun, son of a Turkish slave, was governor of Egypt who and made himself effectively independent of the ‘Abbasids. Their continuing influence at another level is suggested by the minaret, which resembles and is said to have been consciously pattern on that of the Great Mosque of Samarra.
Shi‘i political movements Hamdanids (905-1003) Buyids in Baghdad (945-1055) Qarmatis (900-1077) Fatimids (909 in Tunis / 969-1171 in Egypt) Nizaris, “Assassins” (1094-1256, and after in different form) Shi‘i scholarship begins to flourish (10th century)
Later Abbasid period (1055-1258) Saljuk Turks effective rulers (sul ṭ ā ns) in Baghdad (1055) Defeat Byzantines at Manzikert (1071) Ghaznavids (961-1186) Afghanistan and Iran Crusades (1099-1291) Salah al-Din and Ayyubids (1171-1250) in Egypt and Syria Mamluks (1250-1517) in Egypt and Syria Building of madrasas
Mongols and after Chinggis Khan (d 1227) unified Mongols Baghad taken 1258; defeated at ‘Ayn Jalut 1260. Il-Khanids to 1336; lands then divided Timur: conquests 1379-1402 Timurids (c1402 - c 1508)
Later Empires: Ottoman 1281- Take Constantinople 1453 Take Syria and Egypt 1516- 7 Beseiged Vienna 1529, 1683 Safavid (1501-1736) in Iran, Shi‘i Sultanate of Delhi 1206-1526 Mughals (1526-1858) Akbar (r. 1556-1605) (cf. Elizabeth I of England,1558-1603) Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707)
God’s promise to the umma. Power and glory belongs to God, and to His Messenger, and to the believers. (Qur’an 63:8) You are the best nation (umma ) ever brought forth to humankind, commanding right conduct, forbidding indecency, and having faith in God. (3:110) This promise appeared largely to have been fulfilled as of c 1000 Hijri (1592 CE)
Allegorical representation of Mughal Emperor Jahangir and the Safavid Shah ‘Abbas of Persia, Mughal, ca. 1618. Courtesy of Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Purchase, F1945.9a
Reflections on the Mughal image: Sense of confidence, stability and dominance Mughal Emperor’s dominance over Safavid: relative size, position of lion and lamb Western influence (?): cherubs, lion and lamb.