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American Government 2nd-5th Mr. Young

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1 American Government 2nd-5th Mr. Young
Unit 1 Chapter 1, Section 3 American Government 2nd-5th Mr. Young

2 Essential Question Why did the Founding Fathers want America to be a Republic and not a Monarchy or a Democracy? What are the 5 important factors that democracy to grow within a state?

3 Major Types of Government
Greek philosopher Aristotle asked “Who governs the state?” 3 major types of gov’t Autocracy- rule by one person Oligarchy- rule by few people Democracy- rule be many persons

4 3 Major Types of Government
1) Autocracy- Any system of gov’t in which the power and authority to rule are in the hands of a single individual Oldest and most common form of government 3 Types of autocratic governments

5 A. Absolute Power Totalitarian dictatorship- ideas of single leader are glorified and government seeks to control all aspects of social and economic life Examples: Hitler, Stalin, Napoleon

6 B. Monarchy King, queen, or emperor exercises supreme powers of government Absolute Monarchs- complete and unlimited power to rule Example: Western Europe

7 C. Constitutional Monarchs
Monarchs that share government powers with elected legislature or serve mainly as the ceremonial leaders of their government Examples: Great Britain, Sweden, Japan

8 3 Major Types of Government
2) Oligarchy- Any system of government in which a small group holds the power Derives power from wealth, military power, social positions, religion, or a combo of them all. Example: Communist countries today

9 3 Major Types of Government
3) Democracy- System of government in which rule is by the people Key Idea: People hold sovereign power

10 Two Types of Democracies
Direct Democracy- people govern themselves by voting on issues individually as citizens

11 Two Types of Democracies
2) Indirect/Representative Democracy- people elect representatives and give them the power

12 Democracy Cont. Republic- voters are the source of the government’s authority (requires citizen participation) Founding fathers wanted a republic because it would promote citizen participation Not every democracy around the world is a republic, i.e. Great Britain

13 Characteristics of Democracy
Individual Liberty Majority Rule with Minority rights Free Elections Competing Political Parties

14 1) Individual Liberty People are as free as possible to develop their own opportunities for success

15 2) Majority Rule/Minority Rights
In democracy people usually accept the decisions of majority of voters in elections Constitution helps to ensure the rights of individuals in the minority will be protected Easy to say, hard to maintain Court Case: Endo v. United States

16 3) Free Elections Democratic governments receive their legitimacy by the consent of the governed 5 characteristics that mark free elections

17 5 Characteristics of Free Elections
“One person, one vote”: every vote the same All candidates can express their views freely Citizens free to help candidates or support issues Legal requirements for voting are kept to a minimum May vote freely by secret ballot

18 4) Competing Political Parties
Political Parties- A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy Those out of power help keep a check on those in power

19 Soil of Democracy Five general criteria where a democracy is more likely to grow Active citizen participation Favorable economy Widespread education Strong civil society Social consensus

20 1) Active Citizen Participation
Citizens must be willing to participate in civic life, such as voting, serve on juries, and run for government offices

21 2) A Favorable Economy Need a good, large middle class
Need a stable, growing economy People not worried about politics if their economic life is out of hand Free enterprise- the opportunity to control one’s own economic decision

22 3) Widespread Education
Needs a country where its people are well educated It is the duty of government to provide education for citizens if it wants to be a democracy.

23 4) Strong Civil Society Groups and organizations that exist separately and independently of the government Give citizens opportunity to express views, make opinions heard, and participate in their democracy Examples: Red Cross, NRA, local churches and newspapers

24 5) Social Consensus Democracy is more likely to grow in a country where people accept the democratic values within a country, such as individual liberty, equality for all, and limits of gov’t power

25 Essential Question Why did the Founding Fathers want America to be a Republic and not a Monarchy or a Democracy? What are the 5 important factors that democracy to grow within a state?

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