Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Principles of Government"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 1 Principles of Government Section 1Government and the State
2Four Essential Features of a State Population.An area with fixed boundaries.Sovereignty, or absolute authority, within its territorial boundaries.A government which maintains order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that its people must obey.
3Theories of the Origin of the State Evolution theory – developed from the family group.Force theory – one person uses force to establish a government over the people.Divine Right theory – the gods chose the rulers of the peopleSocial Contract theory – the people gave the power to the government for protection of rights
4The Purposes of Government Maintain social orderProvide public servicesProvide national securityMake economic decisions
5Journal Discussion Question During World War II, the government imposed hardships, such as the rationing of gasoline and food, on the U.S. Population. Are such measures justifiable? Why or why not?
6Chapter 1 Principles of Government Section 2Forms of Government
7Classifying Governments Governments are classified by who governs the state.Autocracy – power resides in a single person.Dictatorship such as Nazi GermanyAbsolute Monarchy such as Saudi Arabia
8Classifying Governments Oligarchy – a small group holds power in the government.Communist China.
9Classifying Governments Democracy – the people hold the sovereign power of government. There are two types of democratic government:Direct democracy – the people govern themselves. Used in VERY small communities.Representative democracy – the people from a specific area elect one person to speak for them in the government. Used in large populations.
10Journal Discussion Question Of the three governments previously stated, which of the three do you think is the best one to live in? EXPLAIN!
11Characteristics of Democracy To secure an equal opportunity for people to develop their own abilities. This is known as Individual Liberty.Government is based on majority rule through the elected representatives, but respects the rights of minorities.
12Characteristics of Democracy Government is based on free and open elections in which every citizen of legal voting age has the right to vote. Every vote has equal weight.Political parties choose candidates for office, respect voters’ decisions, and act as loyal opposition.
13The Soil of DemocracyCertain conditions are needed for the development of democratic governments.Countries where citizens participate fully in civic life are more likely to maintain a strong democracy.Stable economies with a large middle class help to strengthen democracy.
14The Soil of DemocracyA public school system open to all people helps promote democracy.A strong civil society in which a network of volunteer programs and organizations independent of government help democracy flourish.The people accept democratic values of liberty and equality.
15Journal Discussion Question As a community, what steps do you think we might take to encourage more people to participate in our democratic government? What do you feel prevents or makes people not want to partake in their government?
16Distribution of PowerUnitary system – gives all key powers to the central government.Ex: United Kingdom
17Distribution of PowerFederal system – powers are divided between a national government and state/ provincial governments.Ex: Canada
18Distribution of PowerConfederation – multiple nations coming together to address issues affecting all member nations.Ex. European Union
19Legislative and Executive Branches Presidential Government – The two branches are completely separate. The two must work together for success.Ex. United States
20Legislative and Executive Branches Parliamentary Government – The executive leader comes from the legislative branch. The Prime Minister holds power until the legislature says.Ex. United Kingdom
21Journal Discussion Question What are the major advantages of a federal system of government?
22Chapter 1 People and Government Section 3Basic Concepts of Democracy
23FoundationsThe American concept of democracy rests on these basic notions:A recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of every person.Respect for the equality of all persons.Faith in majority rule and minority rights.Acceptance and compromise.Individual freedom.
24Free Enterprise System The Free Enterprise System is based on four fundamental factors:Private ownershipIndividual initiativeProfitCompetition
25Free Enterprise System Economic decisions are made by the market through the law of supply and demand. When supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices drop. When supplies become scarce, prices tend to rise.
26Governments roleThe United States has a mixed economy. This means that the government only becomes involved in the economy to protect consumers and to make sure that private enterprise is preserved.The government’s involvement is seen at all levels
27Journal Discussion Question Open your textbook to page 26.What do you feel is the most important concept of American democracy?