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Chapter 1 Principles of Government Section 1 Government and the State.

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1 Chapter 1 Principles of Government Section 1 Government and the State

2 Four Essential Features of a State 1. Population. 2. An area with fixed boundaries. 3. Sovereignty, or absolute authority, within its territorial boundaries. 4. A government which maintains order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that its people must obey.

3 Theories of the Origin of the State Evolution theory – developed from the family group. Force theory – one person uses force to establish a government over the people. Divine Right theory – the gods chose the rulers of the people Social Contract theory – the people gave the power to the government for protection of rights

4 The Purposes of Government Maintain social order Provide public services Provide national security Make economic decisions

5 Journal Discussion Question During World War II, the government imposed hardships, such as the rationing of gasoline and food, on the U.S. Population. Are such measures justifiable? Why or why not?

6 Chapter 1 Principles of Government Section 2 Forms of Government

7 Classifying Governments Governments are classified by who governs the state. Autocracy – power resides in a single person. – Dictatorship such as Nazi Germany – Absolute Monarchy such as Saudi Arabia

8 Classifying Governments Oligarchy – a small group holds power in the government. – Communist China.

9 Classifying Governments Democracy – the people hold the sovereign power of government. There are two types of democratic government: – Direct democracy – the people govern themselves. Used in VERY small communities. – Representative democracy – the people from a specific area elect one person to speak for them in the government. Used in large populations.

10 Journal Discussion Question Of the three governments previously stated, which of the three do you think is the best one to live in? EXPLAIN!

11 Characteristics of Democracy To secure an equal opportunity for people to develop their own abilities. This is known as Individual Liberty. Government is based on majority rule through the elected representatives, but respects the rights of minorities.

12 Characteristics of Democracy Government is based on free and open elections in which every citizen of legal voting age has the right to vote. Every vote has equal weight. Political parties choose candidates for office, respect voters decisions, and act as loyal opposition.

13 The Soil of Democracy Certain conditions are needed for the development of democratic governments. Countries where citizens participate fully in civic life are more likely to maintain a strong democracy. Stable economies with a large middle class help to strengthen democracy.

14 The Soil of Democracy A public school system open to all people helps promote democracy. A strong civil society in which a network of volunteer programs and organizations independent of government help democracy flourish. The people accept democratic values of liberty and equality.

15 Journal Discussion Question As a community, what steps do you think we might take to encourage more people to participate in our democratic government? What do you feel prevents or makes people not want to partake in their government?

16 Distribution of Power Unitary system – gives all key powers to the central government. Ex: United Kingdom

17 Distribution of Power Federal system – powers are divided between a national government and state/ provincial governments. Ex: Canada

18 Distribution of Power Confederation – multiple nations coming together to address issues affecting all member nations. Ex. European Union

19 Legislative and Executive Branches Presidential Government – The two branches are completely separate. The two must work together for success. Ex. United States

20 Legislative and Executive Branches Parliamentary Government – The executive leader comes from the legislative branch. The Prime Minister holds power until the legislature says. Ex. United Kingdom

21 Journal Discussion Question What are the major advantages of a federal system of government?

22 Chapter 1 People and Government Section 3 Basic Concepts of Democracy

23 Foundations The American concept of democracy rests on these basic notions: 1. A recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of every person. 2. Respect for the equality of all persons. 3. Faith in majority rule and minority rights. 4. Acceptance and compromise. 5. Individual freedom.

24 Free Enterprise System The Free Enterprise System is based on four fundamental factors: 1. Private ownership 2. Individual initiative 3. Profit 4. Competition

25 Free Enterprise System Economic decisions are made by the market through the law of supply and demand. When supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices drop. When supplies become scarce, prices tend to rise.

26 Governments role The United States has a mixed economy. This means that the government only becomes involved in the economy to protect consumers and to make sure that private enterprise is preserved. The governments involvement is seen at all levels

27 Journal Discussion Question Open your textbook to page 26. What do you feel is the most important concept of American democracy?

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