Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Nations, States and Countries (Oh my!)

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Nations, States and Countries (Oh my!)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nations, States and Countries (Oh my!)

2 What is a “nation?” Nation: a large aggregate united by common Descent
History Culture Language Inhabiting a particular territory (not necessarily a country)

3 What is a “state?” State: a “nation” with its own government that occupies a particular territory

4 What is a “country?” Country: same as a state

5 What is a “stateless nation?”
“Stateless nation”: A group of people that has the characteristics of being a nation but does not have their own government

6 What is a “nationless state?”
“Nationless state”: boundaries (arbitrarily draw) with no historical context and no common bond between people

7 Governments

8 What is a government? Government: The institution through which a state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforce binding decisions on citizens. Popular Sovereignty: the state has supreme and absolute authority within its territorial boundaries (In theory, no state has the right to interfere with the internal affairs of another state.)

9 Government Power and the Social Contract
Governments always get their power from the people they rule Social Contract: People give up some rights and power to the government Government protects the citizens

10 Government Effectiveness

11 For a Government to Work…
gov’ts must make unifying decisions Individuals must obey gov’t decisions Gov’t must have the power to punish those who do not obey

12 Government Power Legitimacy Coercive Force
Willingness of citizens to obey Democracy: consent of the people Coercive Force Comes from police, judicial and military institutions Gov’ts force people to pay taxes and punish offenders by fines/imprison

13 Purpose of Governments

14 Maintain Social Order Settle disputes Make and enforce laws
Structures for settling Make and enforce laws

15 Provide National Security
Protect people against attack by other states and from threats of terrorism Foreign relations Trade agreements Treaties

16 Provide Public Services
Roads Sewer systems Promote health and safety Diseases prevention Driver’s licenses

17 Making Economic Decisions
Address poverty (Causes of revolutions) Payments to farmers Stimulate economic growth Taxes Money circulation

18 Types of Governments

19 Autocracy Autocracy: any system of government in with the power and authority to rule are in the hands of a single individual.

20 Autocracy Totalitarian Dictatorship:
the ideas of a single leader or group of leaders are glorified The government seeks to control all aspects of social and economic life Examples: Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini and Joseph Stalin

21 Autocracy Monarchy: Constitutional Monarchy
King, queen, or emperor exercises the supreme powers of government Monarchs usually inherit their position Example: King of Saudi Arabia Constitutional Monarchy Monarchs whose power is limited by a constitution Example: Great Britain

22 Theocracy Theocracy Theo: Greek for God Kratia: Greek for “rule”
Religious leaders rule the country They use religious laws to rule the people and settle disputes. Example: Iran

23 Oligarchy Oligarchy: A system in which a small group holds power.
Example: China’s Communist Party

24 Dictatorships and Oligarchies
Will say they rule for the people Give appearance: Hold elections, but only offer one candidate Have Assemblies or Legislatures, but approve decisions already made by the leaders

25 Democracy Democracy Demos: Greek for “the people”
Kratia: Greek for “rule” A system of government in which rule is by the people

26 Characteristics of a Democracy
Individual Liberty No one can have complete freedom = chaos People are to be as free as possible to develop their own capacities “The freedom to move your arm ends where my nose begins.”

27 Characteristics of a Democracy
Majority Rule with Minority Rights “Tyranny of the Majority” Difficult balance to achieve Example: Japanese Interment Camps: Supreme Court (Korematsu vs. US) upheld interment camps

28 Characteristics of a Democracy
Free Elections Every person’s vote in equal All candidates have freedom of expression People are free to help candidates/issues Legal rights to vote (citizenship, age, residence) are kept to a minimum Secret ballot

29 Characteristics of a Democracy
Competing Political Parties Groups of individuals with broad interests who organize to nominate candidate, etc

30 Democracy Direct Democracy:
People govern themselves by voting on issues individually as citizens Only works in small societies where citizens can meet to decide on key issues and problems Example: Ancient Athens

31 Democracy Indirect Democracy (Republic)
People elect representatives and five them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government If the representative makes good decisions, then he/she could be re-elected. (visa-versa) Example: Ancient Rome and the USA


33 First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petitition the Government for a redress of grievances.

34 Rights Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people

35 Universal Rights The right that ALL people of all countries have…
The Right to Life

36 Cultural Rights Cultural Rights: Rights you have in a particular country Rights vary from country to country

37 Prohibitive Power Prohibitive Powers: powers denied to both national and state governments Example US Bill of Rights

38 Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Download ppt "Nations, States and Countries (Oh my!)"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google