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Nations, States and Countries (Oh my!). What is a “nation?” Nation: a large aggregate united by common – Descent – History – Culture – Language – Inhabiting.

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Presentation on theme: "Nations, States and Countries (Oh my!). What is a “nation?” Nation: a large aggregate united by common – Descent – History – Culture – Language – Inhabiting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nations, States and Countries (Oh my!)

2 What is a “nation?” Nation: a large aggregate united by common – Descent – History – Culture – Language – Inhabiting a particular territory (not necessarily a country)

3 What is a “state?” State: a “nation” with its own government that occupies a particular territory

4 What is a “country?” Country: same as a state

5 What is a “stateless nation?” “Stateless nation”: A group of people that has the characteristics of being a nation but does not have their own government

6 What is a “nationless state?” “Nationless state”: boundaries (arbitrarily draw) with no historical context and no common bond between people

7 Governments

8 What is a government? Government: The institution through which a state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforce binding decisions on citizens. Popular Sovereignty: the state has supreme and absolute authority within its territorial boundaries – (In theory, no state has the right to interfere with the internal affairs of another state.)

9 Government Power and the Social Contract Governments always get their power from the people they rule Social Contract: – People give up some rights and power to the government – Government protects the citizens

10 Government Effectiveness

11 For a Government to Work… gov’ts must make unifying decisions Individuals must obey gov’t decisions Gov’t must have the power to punish those who do not obey

12 Government Power Legitimacy – Willingness of citizens to obey Democracy: consent of the people Coercive Force – Comes from police, judicial and military institutions – Gov’ts force people to pay taxes and punish offenders by fines/imprison

13 Purpose of Governments

14 Maintain Social Order Settle disputes – Structures for settling Make and enforce laws

15 Provide National Security Protect people against attack by other states and from threats of terrorism Foreign relations – Trade agreements – Treaties

16 Provide Public Services Roads Sewer systems Promote health and safety – Diseases prevention – Driver’s licenses

17 Making Economic Decisions Address poverty – (Causes of revolutions) Payments to farmers Stimulate economic growth – Taxes – Money circulation

18 Types of Governments

19 Autocracy Autocracy: any system of government in with the power and authority to rule are in the hands of a single individual.

20 Autocracy Totalitarian Dictatorship: – the ideas of a single leader or group of leaders are glorified – The government seeks to control all aspects of social and economic life – Examples: Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini and Joseph Stalin

21 Autocracy Monarchy: – King, queen, or emperor exercises the supreme powers of government – Monarchs usually inherit their position – Example: King of Saudi Arabia Constitutional Monarchy – Monarchs whose power is limited by a constitution – Example: Great Britain

22 Theocracy – Theo: Greek for God – Kratia: Greek for “rule” – Religious leaders rule the country – They use religious laws to rule the people and settle disputes. – Example: Iran

23 Oligarchy Oligarchy: – A system in which a small group holds power. Example: China’s Communist Party

24 Dictatorships and Oligarchies – Will say they rule for the people – Give appearance: Hold elections, but only offer one candidate Have Assemblies or Legislatures, but approve decisions already made by the leaders

25 Democracy – Demos: Greek for “the people” – Kratia: Greek for “rule” – A system of government in which rule is by the people

26 Characteristics of a Democracy Individual Liberty – No one can have complete freedom = chaos – People are to be as free as possible to develop their own capacities – “The freedom to move your arm ends where my nose begins.”

27 Characteristics of a Democracy Majority Rule with Minority Rights – “Tyranny of the Majority” – Difficult balance to achieve Example: Japanese Interment Camps: – Supreme Court (Korematsu vs. US) upheld interment camps

28 Characteristics of a Democracy Free Elections – Every person’s vote in equal – All candidates have freedom of expression – People are free to help candidates/issues – Legal rights to vote (citizenship, age, residence) are kept to a minimum – Secret ballot

29 Characteristics of a Democracy Competing Political Parties – Groups of individuals with broad interests who organize to nominate candidate, etc

30 Democracy Direct Democracy: – People govern themselves by voting on issues individually as citizens – Only works in small societies where citizens can meet to decide on key issues and problems – Example: Ancient Athens

31 Democracy Indirect Democracy (Republic) – People elect representatives and five them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government – If the representative makes good decisions, then he/she could be re-elected. (visa-versa) – Example: Ancient Rome and the USA

32

33 First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petitition the Government for a redress of grievances.

34 Rights Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; – that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people

35 Universal Rights The right that ALL people of all countries have… – The Right to Life

36 Cultural Rights Cultural Rights: Rights you have in a particular country Rights vary from country to country

37 Prohibitive Power Prohibitive Powers: powers denied to both national and state governments – Example US Bill of Rights

38 Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.


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