8What is a government?Government: The institution through which a state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforce binding decisions on citizens.Popular Sovereignty: the state has supreme and absolute authority within its territorial boundaries(In theory, no state has the right to interfere with the internal affairs of another state.)
9Government Power and the Social Contract Governments always get their power from the people they ruleSocial Contract:People give up some rights and power to the governmentGovernment protects the citizens
11For a Government to Work… gov’ts must make unifying decisionsIndividuals must obey gov’t decisionsGov’t must have the power to punish those who do not obey
12Government Power Legitimacy Coercive Force Willingness of citizens to obeyDemocracy: consent of the peopleCoercive ForceComes from police, judicial and military institutionsGov’ts force people to pay taxes and punish offenders by fines/imprison
19AutocracyAutocracy: any system of government in with the power and authority to rule are in the hands of a single individual.
20Autocracy Totalitarian Dictatorship: the ideas of a single leader or group of leaders are glorifiedThe government seeks to control all aspects of social and economic lifeExamples:Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini and Joseph Stalin
21Autocracy Monarchy: Constitutional Monarchy King, queen, or emperor exercises the supreme powers of governmentMonarchs usually inherit their positionExample: King of Saudi ArabiaConstitutional MonarchyMonarchs whose power is limited by a constitutionExample: Great Britain
22Theocracy Theocracy Theo: Greek for God Kratia: Greek for “rule” Religious leaders rule the countryThey use religious laws to rule the people and settle disputes.Example: Iran
23Oligarchy Oligarchy: A system in which a small group holds power. Example: China’s Communist Party
24Dictatorships and Oligarchies Will say they rule for the peopleGive appearance:Hold elections, but only offer one candidateHave Assemblies or Legislatures, but approve decisions already made by the leaders
25Democracy Democracy Demos: Greek for “the people” Kratia: Greek for “rule”A system of government in which rule is by the people
26Characteristics of a Democracy Individual LibertyNo one can have complete freedom = chaosPeople are to be as free as possible to develop their own capacities“The freedom to move your arm ends where my nose begins.”
27Characteristics of a Democracy Majority Rule with Minority Rights“Tyranny of the Majority”Difficult balance to achieveExample: Japanese Interment Camps:Supreme Court (Korematsu vs. US) upheld interment camps
28Characteristics of a Democracy Free ElectionsEvery person’s vote in equalAll candidates have freedom of expressionPeople are free to help candidates/issuesLegal rights to vote (citizenship, age, residence) are kept to a minimumSecret ballot
29Characteristics of a Democracy Competing Political PartiesGroups of individuals with broad interests who organize to nominate candidate, etc
30Democracy Direct Democracy: People govern themselves by voting on issues individually as citizensOnly works in small societies where citizens can meet to decide on key issues and problemsExample:Ancient Athens
31Democracy Indirect Democracy (Republic) People elect representatives and five them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct governmentIf the representative makes good decisions, then he/she could be re-elected. (visa-versa)Example:Ancient Rome and the USA
33First AmendmentCongress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petitition the Government for a redress of grievances.
34RightsRights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement;that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people
35Universal Rights The right that ALL people of all countries have… The Right to Life
36Cultural RightsCultural Rights: Rights you have in a particular countryRights vary from country to country
37Prohibitive PowerProhibitive Powers: powers denied to both national and state governmentsExample US Bill of Rights
38Amendment VIIIExcessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.