Presentation on theme: "Nations, States and Countries (Oh my!). What is a “nation?” Nation: a large aggregate united by common – Descent – History – Culture – Language – Inhabiting."— Presentation transcript:
What is a government? Government: The institution through which a state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforce binding decisions on citizens. Popular Sovereignty: the state has supreme and absolute authority within its territorial boundaries – (In theory, no state has the right to interfere with the internal affairs of another state.)
Government Power and the Social Contract Governments always get their power from the people they rule Social Contract: – People give up some rights and power to the government – Government protects the citizens
For a Government to Work… gov’ts must make unifying decisions Individuals must obey gov’t decisions Gov’t must have the power to punish those who do not obey
Government Power Legitimacy – Willingness of citizens to obey Democracy: consent of the people Coercive Force – Comes from police, judicial and military institutions – Gov’ts force people to pay taxes and punish offenders by fines/imprison
Autocracy Autocracy: any system of government in with the power and authority to rule are in the hands of a single individual.
Autocracy Totalitarian Dictatorship: – the ideas of a single leader or group of leaders are glorified – The government seeks to control all aspects of social and economic life – Examples: Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini and Joseph Stalin
Autocracy Monarchy: – King, queen, or emperor exercises the supreme powers of government – Monarchs usually inherit their position – Example: King of Saudi Arabia Constitutional Monarchy – Monarchs whose power is limited by a constitution – Example: Great Britain
Theocracy – Theo: Greek for God – Kratia: Greek for “rule” – Religious leaders rule the country – They use religious laws to rule the people and settle disputes. – Example: Iran
Oligarchy Oligarchy: – A system in which a small group holds power. Example: China’s Communist Party
Dictatorships and Oligarchies – Will say they rule for the people – Give appearance: Hold elections, but only offer one candidate Have Assemblies or Legislatures, but approve decisions already made by the leaders
Democracy – Demos: Greek for “the people” – Kratia: Greek for “rule” – A system of government in which rule is by the people
Characteristics of a Democracy Individual Liberty – No one can have complete freedom = chaos – People are to be as free as possible to develop their own capacities – “The freedom to move your arm ends where my nose begins.”
Characteristics of a Democracy Majority Rule with Minority Rights – “Tyranny of the Majority” – Difficult balance to achieve Example: Japanese Interment Camps: – Supreme Court (Korematsu vs. US) upheld interment camps
Characteristics of a Democracy Free Elections – Every person’s vote in equal – All candidates have freedom of expression – People are free to help candidates/issues – Legal rights to vote (citizenship, age, residence) are kept to a minimum – Secret ballot
Characteristics of a Democracy Competing Political Parties – Groups of individuals with broad interests who organize to nominate candidate, etc
Democracy Direct Democracy: – People govern themselves by voting on issues individually as citizens – Only works in small societies where citizens can meet to decide on key issues and problems – Example: Ancient Athens
Democracy Indirect Democracy (Republic) – People elect representatives and five them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government – If the representative makes good decisions, then he/she could be re-elected. (visa-versa) – Example: Ancient Rome and the USA
First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petitition the Government for a redress of grievances.
Rights Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; – that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people
Universal Rights The right that ALL people of all countries have… – The Right to Life
Cultural Rights Cultural Rights: Rights you have in a particular country Rights vary from country to country
Prohibitive Power Prohibitive Powers: powers denied to both national and state governments – Example US Bill of Rights
Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.