Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Notes. Citizen : a person’s membership into a political community Government : an institution through which leader’s exercise power to make."— Presentation transcript:
Citizen : a person’s membership into a political community Government : an institution through which leader’s exercise power to make and enforce laws Anarchy : a state without government and laws
Legitimacy In all human relationships, power is found. Doctor/patient, car-mechanic/car owner, bully/bullied, police officer/citizen But some have the right to power through legitimacy (conferred or agreed upon power). Why do we give power to another? What is gained?
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) English Political Writer Early Enlightenment writer/thinker. Wrote The Leviathan (1651)
The Leviathan Thomas Hobbes was one of the earliest Enlightenment thinkers. The Enlightenment: A period of intellectual thought that used reason and logic ( scientific method ) to be applied to politics and society to challenge traditional belief systems (to improve society). Period from 1650 to 1800.
In-Class Assignment Read the segment of The Leviathan given to you in small groups of 3 to 5. Answer the questions using the reading. The questions are written in order with the reading. If your group does not finish you will have to finish on your own time. Use time wisely. Answers to questions are due at the beginning of next class. (determined by start time)
The State of Nature The State of Nature => Need for a legitimate authority Government serves to protect us from the natural state. Natural rights- individuals are born with natural rights ; “every man has the right to every thing” in the state of nature. Self-preservation is at the center of those powers. Law creates an obligation and duty to another We must give our natural rights (freedoms and liberties) to the government (authority) in order to be removed from the state of nature and continue to promote our self-preservation. The State of Nature is why individuals submit to a government power.
Functions of Government 1. Maintain Order: Provide Services: Public services (education), projects (highway system), and policies (Medicare). 2. Ensure National Security: Guard its territory by providing foreign diplomacy and defense. 3. Provide for the Public Good (General Welfare): Public Policy: government action to achieve a community goal
Theories of Rule 1. Divine Right: the ruler is chosen by God. A ruler receives their authority and rules on behalf of a divine being. 2. Force theory : take over by force 3. Evolutionary: evolved from the family (tribal) 4. Social Contract: legitimate authority is a result of the people’s agreement or contract with the government. John Locke Social Contract. Second Treatise of Government
Types of Government 1. Authoritarian: power is held by an individual or group who are not accountable to the people they govern. Totalitarian: control of all aspects of people’s lives.
A. Autocracy Rule belongs to a single individual. a) Absolute Monarchy: government with hereditary ruler - Unlimited authority - Example: King Louis XIV b) Dictatorship: removal by opposition - no means for new leader - example: Adolf Hitler
B. Oligarchy Ruled by a few or small group. Example: Military of North Korea
2) Democracy Government by which the people rule A) Direct Democracy (Pure Democracy): power is placed in the assembly of all citizens who participate.
B) Representative Democracy Citizens choose a smaller group of citizens to represent and govern on their behalf. Majority Rule : the doctrine that the majority of an organized group can make decisions that bind the whole group. Plurality: system in which the winner is the person with the most votes Presidential Form: A system of government in which the president of the executive branch is chosen by the people and is independent of the legislature.
Governments in b/t the Spectrum A) Theocracy: Political power is controlled by religious leaders. B) Constitutional Monarchy : Monarch limited by a constitution and laws. Example: Iran
United States- What is a State? State: a political unit with the power to make and enforce laws over a group of people living within a clearly defined territory. Defined by population, territory, and sovereignty Sometimes called: country or “nation-state” States are politically organized => Have a government with sovereign power Sovereignty: supreme or ultimate political authority; a sovereign government is one that is legally and politically independent of any other government.