Presentation on theme: "SKELETAL SYSTEM. Functions of the Skeletal System Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE Support and Protection Body movement Blood cell formation (bone marrow)"— Presentation transcript:
Functions of the Skeletal System Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE Support and Protection Body movement Blood cell formation (bone marrow) - hematopoeisis Storage of inorganic materials (salt, calcium, potassium….)
ORGANIZATION About 206 bones 2 Main Divisions – Axial & Appendicular
Appendicular Skeleton Limbs & Bones that connect to the o Pectoral Girdle (shoulders) o Pelvic Girdle (hips)
BONE STRUCTURE - Long Bone 1. Epiphysis 2. Diaphysis 3. Articular Cartilage 4. Periosteum Chondrocytes – cartilage cells
Inside the Long Bone Medullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow -Red Marrow (blood) -Yellow Marrow (fat) Endosteum – lining of the medullary
Types of Bone Tissue Compact (wall of the diaphysis) Spongy (cancellous, epiphysis) - red marrow
Structure of a Long Bone Figure 6.3a-c
* Assignment – Coloring of a Long Bone
Review the Structure of a Long Bone Matching quiz at http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/a p/holehaap/student/olc2/chap 07matching01.html http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/a p/holehaap/student/olc2/chap 07matching01.html
Microscopic Structure MATRIX - where the bone cells live OSTEOCYTES - mature bone cells, enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAE OSTEOCYTES form rings (LAMELLAE) around a HAVERSIAN CANAL which houses blood vessels Osteocytes are linked by CANALICULI Haversian Canals are linked by VOLKMAN's CANALS
Compact Bone BONE COLORING!
Test Yourself Find the... Haversian Canal Volkman's Canal Lamellae Spongy Bone Compact Bone
BONE DEVELOPMENT & GROWTH 1. Intramembranous bones – flat, skull 2. Endochondral bones – all other ALL BONES START AS HYALINE CARTILAGE, areas graduallly turn to bone PRIMARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (shaft) SECONDARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (ends)
Bone Development & Growth EPIPHYSEAL DISK (growth plate) is a band of cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis These areas increase bone length as the cells ossify Cartilage becomes OSTEOBLASTS become OSTEOCYTES
RESORPTION OSTEOCLASTS - dissolve bone tissue to release minerals, process is called RESORPTION
Create a Study Guide on Long Bone Formation 1. Format is your choice: Booklet, Foldable, Flashcards 2. Draw Illustrations 3. Label Illustrations 4. Include in writing the process 5. Use page 134 as a guide or this illustration:
Bone Growth * Assignment - Coloring of the Aging Hand
TOPOGRAPHY OF THE SKULL Foramen - refers to any tiny opening, nerves and blood vessels leave this opening to supply the face Mental Foramen
Suture - refers to any connection between large bones (in fetal skulls, these are called fontanels) Fissure - any wide gap between bones
Sutures 1. Coronal - between frontal and parietal bones 2. Lambdoidal - between occipital and parietal bones 3. Squamosal - between temporal and parietal bones 4. Sagittal - between parietal bones
Bones of the Skull & Sutures
Foramen Magnum * Assignment: Skull Labeling
The Rest of the Bones
Vertebrae Neck = cervical Middle Back = thoracic Lower Back = lumbar
Bones of the Arm Ulna goes to pinky (P-U) Radius goes to thumb
Wrist/Hand Bones Carpels Metacarpals Phalanges
Name the carpals for extra credit on test.
Bones of the Leg
Bones of the Ankle/Foot Assignment – Skeleton Labeling Calcaneous Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges
Upcoming Assignments The Skeleton Mystery - read about a “crime scene” and reconstruct skeletons to identify the remains Watch a Bones Episode Identify Bones on a real skeleton Lab Practical Test Medical Imaging – learn how doctors view bones and diagnose problems
TEST INFORMATION Test will cover everything in your notes and on the slides presented in class Visit biologycorner.com for study aids A second test will occur that covers the lab portion
Abnormal Bone Conditions BONE SPURS: abnormal growth. Can occur on any bone (e.g. heel). OSTEOPOROSIS: Increased activity of osteoclasts cause a break down bone, and the subsequent fewer minerals in the extracellular matrix make it fragile. The spongy bone especially becomes more porous. Men get it as well as women. What’s the best way to prevent osteoporosis? Exercise! What does exercise do? Makes bones bigger. The most common bone used for a bone graft is the iliac bone of the hip.
Osteoporosis Figure 6.15
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity Source: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/public/article3233439.ece http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/public/article3233439.ece
ABNORMALITIES OF THE SPINE SCOLIOSIS is a lateral curve in the spine KYPHOSIS is a hunchback curve LORDOSIS is a swayback in the lower region. ANKYLOSIS is severe arthritis in the spine and the vertebrae fuse.
FUN FACTS ABOUT BONESBone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone. Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood we have only 206 in our bodies. The giraffe has the same number of bones in its neck as a human: seven in total. The long horned ram can take a head butt at 25 mph. The human skull will fracture at 5mph.
Study Guide for Skeletal System Quiz Number 3 Know all the definition of the terms of Table 7.2 and their examples (this was the study guide you made) Know all the bones of the appendicular skeleton Know the 6 different types of fractures Know what scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis, ankylosis, and osteoporosis are.
Owl Pellet Lab Get into groups 1. Assign who will be the Dissector(s) 2. Who will arrange the bones and glue them 3. Who will fetch the materials and clean up Instead of the Analysis questions, answer these questions instead: 1. Compare the bones of the animal you found in the pellet with the bones of the human skeleton 2. Based on your knowledge of the human skeleton, how did that help you put together your bones?