2Functions of the Skeletal System Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUESupport and ProtectionBody movementBlood cell formation (bone marrow) - hematopoeisisStorage of inorganic materials (salt, calcium, potassium….)
32 Main Divisions – Axial & Appendicular ORGANIZATIONAbout 206 bones2 Main Divisions – Axial & Appendicular
6Appendicular Skeleton Limbs & Bones that connect to thePectoral Girdle (shoulders)Pelvic Girdle (hips)
7BONE STRUCTURE - Long Bone EpiphysisDiaphysisArticular CartilagePeriosteumChondrocytes – cartilage cells
8Medullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow Inside the Long BoneMedullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow-Red Marrow (blood)-Yellow Marrow (fat)Endosteum– lining of the medullary
9Compact (wall of the diaphysis) Types of Bone TissueCompact (wall of the diaphysis)Spongy (cancellous, epiphysis) - red marrow
12Review the Structure of a Long Bone Matching quiz at
13Microscopic Structure MATRIX - where the bone cells liveOSTEOCYTES - mature bone cells, enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAEOSTEOCYTES form rings (LAMELLAE) around a HAVERSIAN CANAL which houses blood vesselsOsteocytes are linked by CANALICULIHaversian Canals are linked by VOLKMAN's CANALS
17BONE DEVELOPMENT & GROWTH Intramembranous bones – flat, skull Endochondral bones – all otherALL BONES START AS HYALINE CARTILAGE, areas graduallly turn to bonePRIMARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (shaft)SECONDARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (ends)
18Bone Development & Growth EPIPHYSEAL DISK (growth plate) is a band of cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysisThese areas increase bone length as the cells ossifyCartilage becomes OSTEOBLASTS become OSTEOCYTES
19RESORPTIONOSTEOCLASTS - dissolve bone tissue to release minerals, process is called RESORPTION
21Create a Study Guide on Long Bone Formation Format is your choice: Booklet, Foldable, FlashcardsDraw IllustrationsLabel IllustrationsInclude in writing the processUse page 134 as a guide or this illustration:
22Bone Growth* Assignment - Coloring of the Aging Hand
52Identify Bones on a real skeleton • Lab Practical Test Upcoming AssignmentsThe Skeleton Mystery - read about a “crime scene” and reconstruct skeletons to identify the remainsWatch a Bones EpisodeIdentify Bones on a real skeleton • Lab Practical TestMedical Imaging – learn how doctors view bones and diagnose problems
53TEST INFORMATIONTest will cover everything in your notes and on the slides presented in classVisit biologycorner.com for study aidsA second test will occur that covers the lab portion
54Abnormal Bone Conditions BONE SPURS: abnormal growth. Can occur on any bone (e.g. heel).OSTEOPOROSIS: Increased activity of osteoclasts cause a break down bone, and the subsequent fewer minerals in the extracellular matrix make it fragile. The spongy bone especially becomes more porous.Men get it as well as women. What’s the best way to prevent osteoporosis? Exercise! What does exercise do? Makes bones bigger.The most common bone used for a bone graft is the iliac bone of the hip.
56Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity Source: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/public/article ece
57ABNORMALITIES OF THE SPINE SCOLIOSIS is a lateral curve in the spineKYPHOSIS is a hunchback curveLORDOSIS is a swayback in the lower region.ANKYLOSIS is severe arthritis in the spine and the vertebrae fuse.
61FUN FACTS ABOUT BONESBone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone. Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood we have only 206 in our bodies.The giraffe has the same number of bones in its neck as a human: seven in total.The long horned ram can take a head butt at 25 mph. The human skull will fracture at 5mph.
63Study Guide for Skeletal System Quiz Number 3 Know all the definition of the terms of Table 7.2 and their examples (this was the study guide you made)Know all the bones of the appendicular skeletonKnow the 6 different types of fracturesKnow what scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis, ankylosis, and osteoporosis are.
64Owl Pellet Lab Get into groups Assign who will be the Dissector(s) Who will arrange the bones and glue themWho will fetch the materials and clean upInstead of the Analysis questions, answer these questions instead:Compare the bones of the animal you found in the pellet with the bones of the human skeletonBased on your knowledge of the human skeleton, how did that help you put together your bones?