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Integumentary and Skeletal Systems Test Notes.  The skeletal system consists of :  Bones  Cartilage  Tendons  Ligaments  Bone maintains the shape.

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Presentation on theme: "Integumentary and Skeletal Systems Test Notes.  The skeletal system consists of :  Bones  Cartilage  Tendons  Ligaments  Bone maintains the shape."— Presentation transcript:

1 Integumentary and Skeletal Systems Test Notes

2  The skeletal system consists of :  Bones  Cartilage  Tendons  Ligaments  Bone maintains the shape of the body, protects internal organs, is a lever system for muscles to act upon, and is a site of mineral storage and blood-cell formation.  Cartilage forms a fetal model of bone, covers the ends of bones, and provides a firm, flexible support.  Tendons attach muscle to bone.  Ligaments attach bone to bone.  To help you remember: LLL, TTT (ligaments are like to like, tendons are two types) Skeletal System

3 Skeletal System (Tendons and Ligaments)  extracellular matrix of tendons and ligaments is made up of primarily collagen fibers which makes them very tough like ropes or cables. tendon ligament

4 Skeletal System (Cartilage)  Three types of cartilage:  Hyaline  Elastic  Fibrocartilage  Hyaline cartilage is most intimately associated with bone function and development hyaline elastic fibrocartilage

5 Skeletal System (Bone)  Bone Tissue Types:  Cancellous (Spongy)  Compact  Cancellous Bone:  Located mainly in the epiphyses of long bones & the interior of all other bones.  Consists of a lacy network of bone with many small, marrow-filled spaces.  Compact Bone:  Mostly solid matrix and cells.  Forms most of the diaphysis of long bones & the thinner surfaces of all other bones. cancellous compact

6 Skeletal System (Bone)  Bone is composed of an organic matrix (mostly collagen) that provides flexible strength and an inorganic matrix (hydroxyapatite) that provides compressional strength (weight bearing).  Hydroxyapatite are calcium phosphate crystals  Bone is formed in thin sheets of extracellular matrix called lamellae  Compact bone consists of cells called osteocytes located within spaces in the matrix called lacunae

7 Skeletal System (Bone)  Ossification is the formation of bone by osteoblasts  Intramembranous ossification occurs when osteoblasts begin to produce bone in connective tissue membranes (primarily in bones of the skull)  Endochondral ossification is the process that produces most of the skeleton, occurs when bones develop from cartilage models, and occurs when osteoblasts invade the spaces left by dying cartilage cells

8  Four types of bone, based on their shape:  Long  Short  Flat  Irregular Skeletal System (Bone)

9 Long bones are longer than they are wide (bones of upper & lower limbs). Short bones are approximately as broad as they are long (bones of ankle & wrist). Flat bones have a relatively thin flattened shape (some skull bones, ribs, & sternum). Irregular bones do not fit in the other shape categories (vertebrae & facial bones). Skeletal System (Bone Shapes) Irregular bones Irregular bones Long bones Short bones Short bones Flat bones

10 BONE STRUCTURE - Long Bone 1.Epiphysis 2.Diaphysis 3.Hyaline (Articular) Cartilage 4.Periosteum

11 Skeletal System (Bone)  a long bone has a diaphysis (shaft) and an epiphysis (each end)  the epiphyseal plate (growth plate), is the site of growth in length of a long bone, and is found between each epiphysis and the diaphysis  a long bone has a medullary cavity (filled with yellow marrow) in the diaphysis, has cancellous bone at the ends (filled with red marrow)  has an endosteum lining the medullary cavity  outer surface covered by a connective tissue layer- periosteum

12 Structure of a Long Bone Figure 6.3a-c

13 Inside the Long Bone Medullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow Red Marrow (blood) Yellow Marrow (fat) Endosteum – lining of the medullary

14 Types of Bone Tissue Compact (wall of the diaphysis) Spongy (cancellous, epiphysis)

15 Review the Structure of a Long Bone Matching quiz at /holehaap/student/olc2/chap07 matching01.html /holehaap/student/olc2/chap07 matching01.html

16 Microscopic Structure MATRIX - where the bone cells live OSTEOCYTES - mature bone cells, enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAE OSTEOCYTES form rings (LAMELLAE) around a HAVERSIAN CANAL which houses blood vessels Osteocytes are linked by CANALICULI Haversian Canals are linked by VOLKMAN's CANALS

17 Compact Bone

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19 BONE DEVELOPMENT & GROWTH 1.Intramembranous bones – flat, skull 2. Endochondral bones – all other ALL BONES START AS HYALINE CARTILAGE, areas graduallly turn to bone PRIMARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (shaft) SECONDARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (ends)

20 Bone Development & Growth EPIPHYSEAL DISK (growth plate) is a band of cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis These areas increase bone length as the cells ossify Cartilage becomes OSTEOBLASTS become OSTEOCYTES

21 RESORPTION OSTEOCLASTS - dissolve bone tissue to release minerals, process is called RESORPTION

22 Bone Growth

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