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SKELETAL SYSTEM. Functions of the Skeletal System ● Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE ● Support and Protection ● Body movement ● Blood cell formation (bone.

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Presentation on theme: "SKELETAL SYSTEM. Functions of the Skeletal System ● Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE ● Support and Protection ● Body movement ● Blood cell formation (bone."— Presentation transcript:

1 SKELETAL SYSTEM

2 Functions of the Skeletal System ● Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE ● Support and Protection ● Body movement ● Blood cell formation (bone marrow) - hemopoiesis ● Storage of inorganic materials (salt, calcium, potassium….)

3 ORGANIZATION ● About 206 bones ● 2 Main Divisions – Axial & Appendicular

4 Axial Skeleton ● Head, neck, trunk ● Skull ● Hyoid Bone ● Vertebral Column ● Thoracic Cage (ribs, 12 pairs) ● Sternum

5 Hyoid Bone

6 Appendicular Skeleton ● Limbs & Bones that connect to the o Pectoral Girdle (shoulders) o Pelvic Girdle (hips)

7 BONE STRUCTURE - Long Bone 1. Epiphysis 2. Diaphysis 3. Articular Cartilage 4. Periosteum

8 Inside the Long Bone Medullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow Red Marrow (blood) Yellow Marrow (fat) Endosteum – lining of the medullary

9 Types of Bone Tissue Compact (wall of the diaphysis) Spongy (cancellous, epiphysis) - red marrow

10 Structure of a Long Bone Figure 6.3a-c

11 * Assignment – Coloring of a Long Bone

12 Review the Structure of a Long Bone Matching quiz at p/holehaap/student/olc2/chap 07matching01.html p/holehaap/student/olc2/chap 07matching01.html

13 Microscopic Structure MATRIX - where the bone cells live OSTEOCYTES - mature bone cells, enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAE OSTEOCYTES form rings (LAMELLAE) around a HAVERSIAN CANAL which houses blood vessels Osteocytes are linked by CANALICULI Haversian Canals are linked by VOLKMAN's CANALS

14 Osteocytes Haversian Canal Volkmann’s Canal

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16 Compact Bone BONE COLORING!

17 Test Yourself Find the... Haversian Canal Volkman's Canal Lamellae Spongy Bone Compact Bone

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19 BONE DEVELOPMENT & GROWTH 1.Intramembranous bones – flat, skull 2. Endochondral bones – all other ALL BONES START AS HYALINE CARTILAGE, areas gradually turn to bone PRIMARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (shaft) SECONDARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (ends)

20 Bone Development & Growth EPIPHYSEAL DISK (growth plate) is a band of cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis These areas increase bone length as the cells ossify Cartilage becomes OSTEOBLASTS become OSTEOCYTES

21 RESORPTION OSTEOCLASTS - dissolve bone tissue to release minerals, process is called RESORPTION

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23 Bone Growth

24 * Assignment - Coloring of the Aging Hand

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26 Types of Joints (articulations) 1. Synarthrotic (not moveable, aka sutures) 2. Amphiarthrotic (slightly moveable, vertebrae) 3. Diarthrotic (moveable joint, aka synovial joints)

27 Synovial fluid - fluid within the joints that helps to lubricate Types of Joints 1. Ball and Socket 2. Hinge 3. Pivot 4. Saddle

28 BONES OF THE SKULL 1. Frontal - 2. Parietal - 3. Occipital - 4. Temporal - 5. Sphenoid - 6. Maxilla - 7. Mandible - 8. Zygomatic -

29 Sutures - connection points 1. Coronal - between frontal and parietal bones 2. Lambdoidal - between occipital and parietal bones 3. Squamosal - between temporal and parietal bones 4. Sagittal - between parietal bones

30 Suture - refers to any connection between large bones (in fetal skulls, these are called fontanels) Fissure - any wide gap between bones

31 Fontanels are “soft spots” on an infant’s skull

32 TOPOGRAPHY OF THE SKULL Foramen - refers to any opening in the skull, nerves and blood vessels leave this opening to supply the face Mental Foramen Foramen Magnum

33 * Assignment: Skull Labeling

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35 Figure 6.10

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38 The Rest of the Bones

39 Vertebrae Neck = cervical Middle Back = thoracic Lower Back = lumbar

40 Thoracic Cage

41 Pectoral Girdle

42 Bones of the Arm Ulna goes to pinky (P-U) Radius goes to thumb

43 Wrist Bones For test Carpels Metacarpals Phalanges *extra credit opportunity

44 Name the carpals for extra credit on test.

45 Pelvic Girdle

46 COXAL BONES - separated

47 Bones of the Leg

48 Bones of the Ankle Assignment – Skeleton Labeling For Test Calcaneous Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

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51 Broken Bones

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53 Warning: Next slide is graphic!

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55 Upcoming Assignments ● The Skeleton Mystery - read about a “crime scene” and reconstruct skeletons to identify the remains ● Watch a Bones Episode ● Identify Bones on a real skeleton Lab Practical Test ● Medical Imaging – learn how doctors view bones and diagnose problems

56 TEST INFORMATION ● Test will cover everything in your notes and on the slides presented in class ● Visit biologycorner.com for study aids ● A second test will occur that covers the lab portion

57 Abnormal Bone Conditions ● BONE SPURS: abnormal growth. Can occur on any bone (e.g. heel). ● OSTEOPOROSIS: Increased activity of osteoclasts cause a break down bone, and the subsequent fewer minerals in the extracellular matrix make it fragile. The spongy bone especially becomes more porous. ● Men get it as well as women. What’s the best way to prevent osteoporosis? Exercise! What does exercise do? Makes bones bigger. ● The most common bone used for a bone graft is the iliac bone of the hip.

58 Osteoporosis Figure 6.15

59 Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity Source:

60 ABNORMALITIES OF THE SPINE ● SCOLIOSIS is a lateral curve in the spine ● KYPHOSIS is a hunchback curve ● LORDOSIS is a swayback in the lower region. ● ANKYLOSIS is severe arthritis in the spine and the vertebrae fuse.

61 SCOLIOSIS

62 LORDOSIS

63 ANKYLOSIS

64 FUN FACTS ABOUT BONESBone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone. ● Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood we have only 206 in our bodies. ● The giraffe has the same number of bones in its neck as a human: seven in total. ● The long horned ram can take a head butt at 25 mph. The human skull will fracture at 5mph.

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