1 Functions of the Skeletal System Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUESupport and ProtectionBody movementBlood cell formation (bone marrow) - hemopoiesisStorage of inorganic materials (salt, calcium, potassium….)
2 2 Main Divisions – Axial & Appendicular ORGANIZATIONAbout 206 bones2 Main Divisions – Axial & Appendicular
5 Appendicular Skeleton Limbs & Bones that connect to thePectoral Girdle (shoulders)Pelvic Girdle (hips)
6 BONE STRUCTURE - Long Bone EpiphysisDiaphysisArticular CartilagePeriosteum
7 Medullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow Inside the Long BoneMedullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrowRed Marrow (blood)Yellow Marrow (fat)Endosteum– lining of the medullary
8 Compact (wall of the diaphysis) Types of Bone TissueCompact (wall of the diaphysis)Spongy (cancellous, epiphysis) - red marrow
11 Review the Structure of a Long Bone Matching quiz at
12 Microscopic Structure MATRIX - where the bone cells liveOSTEOCYTES - mature bone cells, enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAEOSTEOCYTES form rings (LAMELLAE) around a HAVERSIAN CANAL which houses blood vesselsOsteocytes are linked by CANALICULIHaversian Canals are linked by VOLKMAN's CANALS
18 BONE DEVELOPMENT & GROWTH Intramembranous bones – flat, skull Endochondral bones – all otherALL BONES START AS HYALINE CARTILAGE, areas gradually turn to bonePRIMARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (shaft)SECONDARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (ends)
19 Bone Development & Growth EPIPHYSEAL DISK (growth plate) is a band of cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysisThese areas increase bone length as the cells ossifyCartilage becomes OSTEOBLASTS become OSTEOCYTES
20 RESORPTIONOSTEOCLASTS - dissolve bone tissue to release minerals, process is called RESORPTION
26 Synovial fluid - fluid within the joints that helps to lubricate Types of Joints1. Ball and Socket2. Hinge3. Pivot4. Saddle
27 BONES OF THE SKULL1. Frontal - 2. Parietal Occipital - 4. Temporal Sphenoid Maxilla Mandible -8. Zygomatic -
28 Sutures - connection points 1. Coronal - between frontal and parietal bones 2. Lambdoidal - between occipital and parietal bones 3. Squamosal - between temporal and parietal bones 4. Sagittal - between parietal bones
29 Suture - refers to any connection between large bones (in fetal skulls, these are called fontanels) Fissure - any wide gap between bones
30 Fontanels are “soft spots” on an infant’s skull
31 TOPOGRAPHY OF THE SKULL Foramen - refers to any opening in the skull, nerves and blood vessels leave this opening to supply the faceForamen MagnumMental Foramen
54 Identify Bones on a real skeleton • Lab Practical Test Upcoming AssignmentsThe Skeleton Mystery - read about a “crime scene” and reconstruct skeletons to identify the remainsWatch a Bones EpisodeIdentify Bones on a real skeleton • Lab Practical TestMedical Imaging – learn how doctors view bones and diagnose problems
55 TEST INFORMATIONTest will cover everything in your notes and on the slides presented in classVisit biologycorner.com for study aidsA second test will occur that covers the lab portion
56 Abnormal Bone Conditions BONE SPURS: abnormal growth. Can occur on any bone (e.g. heel).OSTEOPOROSIS: Increased activity of osteoclasts cause a break down bone, and the subsequent fewer minerals in the extracellular matrix make it fragile. The spongy bone especially becomes more porous.Men get it as well as women. What’s the best way to prevent osteoporosis? Exercise! What does exercise do? Makes bones bigger.The most common bone used for a bone graft is the iliac bone of the hip.
58 Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity Source: http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/public/article ece
59 ABNORMALITIES OF THE SPINE SCOLIOSIS is a lateral curve in the spineKYPHOSIS is a hunchback curveLORDOSIS is a swayback in the lower region.ANKYLOSIS is severe arthritis in the spine and the vertebrae fuse.
63 FUN FACTS ABOUT BONESBone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone. Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood we have only 206 in our bodies.The giraffe has the same number of bones in its neck as a human: seven in total.The long horned ram can take a head butt at 25 mph. The human skull will fracture at 5mph.