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Functions of the Skeletal System

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1 Functions of the Skeletal System
Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE Support and Protection Body movement Blood cell formation (bone marrow) - hemopoiesis Storage of inorganic materials                     (salt, calcium, potassium….)

2 2 Main Divisions – Axial & Appendicular
ORGANIZATION About 206 bones 2 Main Divisions – Axial & Appendicular

3 Axial Skeleton Head, neck, trunk Skull Hyoid Bone Vertebral Column Thoracic Cage (ribs, 12 pairs) Sternum

4 Hyoid Bone

5 Appendicular Skeleton
Limbs & Bones that connect to the Pectoral Girdle (shoulders) Pelvic Girdle (hips)

Epiphysis Diaphysis Articular Cartilage Periosteum

7 Medullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow
Inside the Long Bone Medullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow Red Marrow (blood) Yellow Marrow (fat) Endosteum – lining of the medullary

8 Compact (wall of the diaphysis)
Types of Bone Tissue Compact (wall of the diaphysis) Spongy (cancellous, epiphysis) - red marrow

9 Structure of a Long Bone
Figure 6.3a-c

10 * Assignment – Coloring of a Long Bone

11 Review the Structure of a Long Bone
Matching quiz at

12 Microscopic Structure
MATRIX - where the bone cells live OSTEOCYTES  - mature bone cells, enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAE OSTEOCYTES form rings (LAMELLAE) around a HAVERSIAN CANAL which houses blood vessels Osteocytes are linked by CANALICULI Haversian Canals are linked by VOLKMAN's CANALS

13 Osteocytes Haversian Canal Volkmann’s Canal


15 Compact Bone BONE COLORING!

16 Test Yourself Find the... Haversian Canal Volkman's Canal Lamellae Spongy Bone Compact Bone


Intramembranous bones – flat, skull  Endochondral bones – all other ALL BONES START AS HYALINE CARTILAGE, areas gradually turn to bone           PRIMARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (shaft)          SECONDARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (ends)

19 Bone Development & Growth
EPIPHYSEAL DISK  (growth plate) is a band of cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis These areas increase bone length as the cells ossify Cartilage becomes OSTEOBLASTS become OSTEOCYTES

20 RESORPTION OSTEOCLASTS - dissolve bone tissue to release minerals,  process is called RESORPTION


22 Bone Growth

23 Bone Growth * Assignment - Coloring of the Aging Hand


25 Types of Joints (articulations)
Synarthrotic (not moveable, aka sutures) Amphiarthrotic (slightly moveable, vertebrae) Diarthrotic (moveable joint, aka synovial joints)

26 Synovial fluid - fluid within the joints that helps to lubricate
Types of Joints 1.  Ball and Socket 2.  Hinge 3.  Pivot 4.  Saddle

27 BONES OF THE SKULL 1. Frontal - 2. Parietal Occipital - 4. Temporal Sphenoid Maxilla Mandible - 8. Zygomatic -

28 Sutures - connection points
1. Coronal - between frontal and parietal bones 2. Lambdoidal - between occipital and parietal bones 3. Squamosal - between temporal and parietal bones 4. Sagittal - between parietal bones

29 Suture - refers to any connection between large bones (in fetal skulls, these are called fontanels)
Fissure - any wide gap between bones

30 Fontanels are “soft spots” on an infant’s skull

Foramen - refers to any opening in the skull, nerves and blood vessels leave this opening to supply the face Foramen Magnum Mental Foramen

32 Foramen Magnum * Assignment: Skull Labeling


34 Figure 6.10

35 Figure 6.10


37 The Rest of the Bones

38 Vertebrae Neck = cervical Middle Back = thoracic Lower Back = lumbar

39 Thoracic Cage

40 Pectoral Girdle

41 Bones of the Arm Ulna goes to pinky  (P-U) Radius goes to thumb

42 Wrist Bones For test Carpels Metacarpals Phalanges
*extra credit opportunity

43 Name the carpals for extra credit on test.

44 Pelvic Girdle

45 COXAL BONES - separated

46 Bones of the Leg

47 Bones of the Ankle For Test Calcaneous Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges
Assignment – Skeleton Labeling



50 Broken Bones


52 Warning: Next slide is graphic!


54 Identify Bones on a real skeleton • Lab Practical Test
Upcoming Assignments The Skeleton Mystery - read about a “crime scene” and reconstruct skeletons to identify the remains Watch a Bones Episode Identify Bones on a real skeleton • Lab Practical Test Medical Imaging – learn how doctors view bones and diagnose problems

55 TEST INFORMATION Test will cover everything in your notes and on the slides presented in class Visit for study aids A second test will occur that covers the lab portion

56 Abnormal Bone Conditions
BONE SPURS: abnormal growth. Can occur on any bone (e.g. heel). OSTEOPOROSIS: Increased activity of osteoclasts cause a break down bone, and the subsequent fewer minerals in the extracellular matrix make it fragile. The spongy bone especially becomes more porous. Men get it as well as women. What’s the best way to prevent osteoporosis? Exercise! What does exercise do? Makes bones bigger. The most common bone used for a bone graft is the iliac bone of the hip.

57 Osteoporosis Figure 6.15

58 Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity
Source: ece 

SCOLIOSIS is a lateral curve in the spine KYPHOSIS is a hunchback curve LORDOSIS is a swayback in the lower region. ANKYLOSIS is severe arthritis in the spine and the vertebrae fuse.




63 FUN FACTS ABOUT BONESBone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone.
Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood we have only 206 in our bodies. The giraffe has the same number of bones in its neck as a human: seven in total. The long horned ram can take a head butt at 25 mph. The human skull will fracture at 5mph.



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