Presentation on theme: "SKELETAL SYSTEM. Functions of the Skeletal System ● Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE ● Support and Protection ● Body movement ● Blood cell formation (bone."— Presentation transcript:
Functions of the Skeletal System ● Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE ● Support and Protection ● Body movement ● Blood cell formation (bone marrow) - hemopoiesis ● Storage of inorganic materials (salt, calcium, potassium….)
ORGANIZATION ● About 206 bones ● 2 Main Divisions – Axial & Appendicular
Appendicular Skeleton ● Limbs & Bones that connect to the o Pectoral Girdle (shoulders) o Pelvic Girdle (hips)
BONE STRUCTURE - Long Bone 1. Epiphysis 2. Diaphysis 3. Articular Cartilage 4. Periosteum
Inside the Long Bone Medullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow Red Marrow (blood) Yellow Marrow (fat) Endosteum – lining of the medullary
Types of Bone Tissue Compact (wall of the diaphysis) Spongy (cancellous, epiphysis) - red marrow
Structure of a Long Bone Figure 6.3a-c
* Assignment – Coloring of a Long Bone
Review the Structure of a Long Bone Matching quiz at p/holehaap/student/olc2/chap 07matching01.html p/holehaap/student/olc2/chap 07matching01.html
Microscopic Structure MATRIX - where the bone cells live OSTEOCYTES - mature bone cells, enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAE OSTEOCYTES form rings (LAMELLAE) around a HAVERSIAN CANAL which houses blood vessels Osteocytes are linked by CANALICULI Haversian Canals are linked by VOLKMAN's CANALS
Osteocytes Haversian Canal Volkmann’s Canal
Compact Bone BONE COLORING!
Test Yourself Find the... Haversian Canal Volkman's Canal Lamellae Spongy Bone Compact Bone
BONE DEVELOPMENT & GROWTH 1.Intramembranous bones – flat, skull 2. Endochondral bones – all other ALL BONES START AS HYALINE CARTILAGE, areas gradually turn to bone PRIMARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (shaft) SECONDARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (ends)
Bone Development & Growth EPIPHYSEAL DISK (growth plate) is a band of cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis These areas increase bone length as the cells ossify Cartilage becomes OSTEOBLASTS become OSTEOCYTES
RESORPTION OSTEOCLASTS - dissolve bone tissue to release minerals, process is called RESORPTION
Sutures - connection points 1. Coronal - between frontal and parietal bones 2. Lambdoidal - between occipital and parietal bones 3. Squamosal - between temporal and parietal bones 4. Sagittal - between parietal bones
Suture - refers to any connection between large bones (in fetal skulls, these are called fontanels) Fissure - any wide gap between bones
Fontanels are “soft spots” on an infant’s skull
TOPOGRAPHY OF THE SKULL Foramen - refers to any opening in the skull, nerves and blood vessels leave this opening to supply the face Mental Foramen Foramen Magnum
* Assignment: Skull Labeling
The Rest of the Bones
Vertebrae Neck = cervical Middle Back = thoracic Lower Back = lumbar
Bones of the Arm Ulna goes to pinky (P-U) Radius goes to thumb
Wrist Bones For test Carpels Metacarpals Phalanges *extra credit opportunity
Name the carpals for extra credit on test.
COXAL BONES - separated
Bones of the Leg
Bones of the Ankle Assignment – Skeleton Labeling For Test Calcaneous Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges
Warning: Next slide is graphic!
Upcoming Assignments ● The Skeleton Mystery - read about a “crime scene” and reconstruct skeletons to identify the remains ● Watch a Bones Episode ● Identify Bones on a real skeleton Lab Practical Test ● Medical Imaging – learn how doctors view bones and diagnose problems
TEST INFORMATION ● Test will cover everything in your notes and on the slides presented in class ● Visit biologycorner.com for study aids ● A second test will occur that covers the lab portion
Abnormal Bone Conditions ● BONE SPURS: abnormal growth. Can occur on any bone (e.g. heel). ● OSTEOPOROSIS: Increased activity of osteoclasts cause a break down bone, and the subsequent fewer minerals in the extracellular matrix make it fragile. The spongy bone especially becomes more porous. ● Men get it as well as women. What’s the best way to prevent osteoporosis? Exercise! What does exercise do? Makes bones bigger. ● The most common bone used for a bone graft is the iliac bone of the hip.
Osteoporosis Figure 6.15
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity Source:
ABNORMALITIES OF THE SPINE ● SCOLIOSIS is a lateral curve in the spine ● KYPHOSIS is a hunchback curve ● LORDOSIS is a swayback in the lower region. ● ANKYLOSIS is severe arthritis in the spine and the vertebrae fuse.
FUN FACTS ABOUT BONESBone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone. ● Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood we have only 206 in our bodies. ● The giraffe has the same number of bones in its neck as a human: seven in total. ● The long horned ram can take a head butt at 25 mph. The human skull will fracture at 5mph.