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SKELETAL SYSTEM. Functions of the Skeletal System Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE Support and Protection Body movement Blood cell formation (bone marrow)

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Presentation on theme: "SKELETAL SYSTEM. Functions of the Skeletal System Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE Support and Protection Body movement Blood cell formation (bone marrow)"— Presentation transcript:

1 SKELETAL SYSTEM

2 Functions of the Skeletal System Bones are made of OSSEOUS TISSUE Support and Protection Body movement Blood cell formation (bone marrow) - hemopoiesis Storage of inorganic materials (salt, calcium, potassium….)

3 ORGANIZATION About 206 bones 2 Main Divisions – Axial & Appendicular

4 Axial Skeleton Head, neck, trunk Skull Hyoid Bone Vertebral Column Thoracic Cage (ribs, 12 pairs) Sternum

5 Hyoid Bone

6 Appendicular Skeleton Limbs & Bones that connect to the o Pectoral Girdle (shoulders) o Pelvic Girdle (hips)

7 BONE STRUCTURE - Long Bone 1. Epiphysis 2. Diaphysis 3. Articular Cartilage 4. Periosteum

8 Inside the Long Bone Medullary Cavity – hollow chamber filled with bone marrow Red Marrow (blood) Yellow Marrow (fat) Endosteum – lining of the medullary

9 Types of Bone Tissue Compact (wall of the diaphysis) Spongy (cancellous, epiphysis) - red marrow

10 Structure of a Long Bone Figure 6.3a-c

11 * Assignment – Coloring of a Long Bone

12 Review the Structure of a Long Bone Matching quiz at p/holehaap/student/olc2/chap 07matching01.html p/holehaap/student/olc2/chap 07matching01.html

13 Microscopic Structure MATRIX - where the bone cells live OSTEOCYTES - mature bone cells, enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAE OSTEOCYTES form rings (LAMELLAE) around a HAVERSIAN CANAL which houses blood vessels Osteocytes are linked by CANALICULI Haversian Canals are linked by VOLKMAN's CANALS

14 Compact Bone BONE COLORING!

15 Test Yourself Find the... Haversian Canal Volkman's Canal Lamellae Spongy Bone Compact Bone

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17 BONE DEVELOPMENT & GROWTH 1. Intramembranous bones – flat, skull 2. Endochondral bones – all other ALL BONES START AS HYALINE CARTILAGE, areas graduallly turn to bone PRIMARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (shaft) SECONDARY OSSIFICATION CENTER (ends)

18 Bone Development & Growth EPIPHYSEAL DISK (growth plate) is a band of cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis These areas increase bone length as the cells ossify

19 RESORPTION OSTEOCLASTS - dissolve bone tissue to release minerals, process is called RESORPTION

20 Bone Growth

21 * Assignment - Coloring of the Aging Hand

22 Types of Joints (articulations) 1. Synarthrotic (not moveable, aka sutures) 2. Amphiarthrotic (slightly moveable, vertebrae) 3. Diarthrotic (moveable joint, aka synovial joints)

23 Synovial fluid - fluid within the joints that helps to lubricate Types of Joints 1. Ball and Socket 2. Hinge 3. Pivot 4. Saddle

24 BONES OF THE SKULL 1. Frontal - 2. Parietal - 3. Occipital - 4. Temporal - 5. Sphenoid - 6. Maxilla - 7. Mandible - 8. Zygomatic -

25 TOPOGRAPHY OF THE SKULL Foramen - refers to any tiny opening, nerves and blood vessels leave this opening to supply the face Mental Foramen

26 Suture - refers to any connection between large bones (in fetal skulls, these are called fontanels) Fissure - any wide gap between bones

27 Sutures 1. Coronal - between frontal and parietal bones 2. Lambdoidal - between occipital and parietal bones 3. Squamosal - between temporal and parietal bones 4. Sagittal - between parietal bones

28 Bones of the Skull & Sutures

29 Foramen Magnum * Assignment: Skull Labeling

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31 Figure 6.10

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34 The Rest of the Bones

35 Vertebrae Neck = cervical Middle Back = thoracic Lower Back = lumbar

36 Thoracic Cage

37 Pectoral Girdle

38 Bones of the Arm Ulna goes to pinky (P-U) Radius goes to thumb

39 Wrist Bones For test Carpels Metacarpals Phalanges *extra credit opportunity

40 Name the carpals for extra credit on test.

41 Pelvic Girdle

42 Bones of the Leg

43 Bones of the Ankle Assignment – Skeleton Labeling For Test Calcaneous Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

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47 Broken Bones

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50 Abnormal Bone Conditions BONE SPURS: abnormal growth. Can occur on any bone (e.g. heel). OSTEOPOROSIS: Increased activity of osteoclasts cause a break down of bone, and the subsequent fewer minerals in the extracellular matrix make it fragile. The spongy bone especially becomes more porous. Men get it as well as women. What’s the best way to prevent osteoporosis? Exercise! What does exercise do? Makes bones bigger. The most common bone used for a bone graft is the iliac bone of the hip.

51 Osteoporosis Figure 6.15

52 Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity Source:

53 ABNORMALITIES OF THE SPINE SCOLIOSIS is a lateral curve in the spine KYPHOSIS is a hunchback curve LORDOSIS is a swayback in the lower region. ANKYLOSIS is severe arthritis in the spine and the vertebrae fuse.

54 SCOLIOSIS

55 LORDOSIS

56 ANKYLOSIS

57 FUN FACTS ABOUT BONES Bone is made of the same type of minerals as limestone. Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood we have only 206 in our bodies. The giraffe has the same number of bones in its neck as a human: seven in total. The long horned ram can take a head butt at 25 mph. The human skull will fracture at 5mph.

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