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The Skeletal System. Functions It protects our vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs It gives us the shape that we have, without it we would.

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Presentation on theme: "The Skeletal System. Functions It protects our vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs It gives us the shape that we have, without it we would."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Skeletal System

2 Functions It protects our vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs It gives us the shape that we have, without it we would be a blob of blood and tissue on the floor It provides us with movement. Because our muscles are attached to bones, when muscles moves, they move bones, and we move It is responsible for the production of blood cells It stores the minerals calcium and phosphorus


4 Ball and Socket Joint

5 Hinge Joint

6 Saddle Joint


8 Arthritis Disease in which the joints become inflamed, or damaged due to wear and tear, causes pain, redness, swelling, and possibly loss of function Two types: Osteoarthritis (most common type)- caused by wear and tear of the joints over time, common in older adults Rheumatoid arthritis- caused by inflammation of the joints

9 Can Cracking Knuckles Lead to Arthritis? Possibly osteoarthritis, because it can lead to wear and tear of the joints, but not very likely The knuckles are the joints in the fingers and toes. They are bathed in a liquid called synovial fluid which lubricates the joints. Some times bubbles of gas form in this fluid and when the joint is manipulated in a certain way, it can cause the bubbles to burst, resulting in a popping sound.

10 Ligaments attach bone to bone, while tendons attach muscle to bone

11 You have 206 bones in your body as adult As a baby, you mostly are made up of cartilage, a soft and flexible tissue, but as you grow the cartilage is replaced by bone The tips of the nose, outer ear, and parts of the ribs remain cartilage our entire lives

12 Bone Marrow The center of the bone is made of a spongy material called marrow Stem cells are blood cells at their earliest stage of development; they form in the red marrow When stem cells mature into blood cells, they are released into the blood stream Yellow marrow stores fat


14 Mature Stem Cells and Cancer The mature stem cells associated with those that form blood cells in the bone marrow are the most common type used to treat human diseases today Bone marrow stem cells have been used to treat cancer patients with leukemia and lymphoma Chemotherapy kills most of the patient’s leukemia cells, as well as some of their bone marrow stem cells If stem cells in bone marrow are removed before the chemotherapy, and then re-injected after treatment, the stem cells in the marrow are able to produce large amounts of red blood and white blood cells, to keep the body healthy and to help fight off infections


16 Sprain- an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by them being over stretched beyond their normal capacity, and possible torn

17 Fracture- a break in the bone; fractures vary in their severity

18 Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a bone disease best described as “porous or brittle bones” Bones are living tissue that are constantly being built Bone cells are called osteocytes With this disease, the rate of bone loss is greater than the rate of bone building, resulting in thin, brittle bones that can fracture easily

19 Osteoporosis Facts More than 28 million Americans have osteoporosis or are at risk of developing it From birth to adolescence new bone is built faster than old bone is removed During adolescence bone grows even faster and stronger Bone mass peaks between the ages of 20-30, after that bone loss can outpace bone formation After menopause in women, bone loss speeds up because of the loss of the hormone, estrogen, that helps to protect bones

20 Notice the “porous” bone on the right

21 How can you help prevent osteoporosis? Eating a well-balanced diet rich in calcium Regularly doing weight bearing activities Avoiding excess alcohol Not smoking Building healthy bones at any age can help prevent osteoporosis later in life!

22 Scoliosis Scoliosis is an unhealthy curvature of a normally straight spine A rotation of the vertebrae and rib cage usually accompanies this unhealthy curve If untreated it can lead to disfigurement, respiratory problems, digestive problems, and pain It may be caused by an injury or trauma, or poor neurological or muscular control of the spine, but for most cases the cause is unknown

23 Scoliosis Scoliosis is sometimes caused be injuries or trauma, but the cause for most cases is unknown Treatment can include wearing a brace, but some cases might require surgical correction of curve But many cases are mild and will never require treatment Scoliosis is more common among girls, can be genetic, and is usually diagnosed during adolescence


25 I hope you are ready for your test on Friday! Study your notes on the skeletal system, and get to know all those bones in your lovely body…and yes, spelling will count

26 Thumb Lab Homework Bind your opposable thumb to your hand using a cloth to tie it to your hand, or you can just tape it. Try the following activities at home: Use the remote control Open a door by turning a knob Drink from a cup Tie your shoe Write using a pen or pencil For each activity, write a few sentences describing your observations and experience Humans are one of the few animals that have this opposable thumb. Explain if this is a benefit or a disadvantage.


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