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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter 24 B. Skeletal System Stats … The human skeleton has about 206 separate bones. 64 bones are in the hands and arms alone. Bones.

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Presentation on theme: "THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter 24 B. Skeletal System Stats … The human skeleton has about 206 separate bones. 64 bones are in the hands and arms alone. Bones."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter 24 B

2 Skeletal System Stats … The human skeleton has about 206 separate bones. 64 bones are in the hands and arms alone. Bones account for approximately 1/5 of the body’s weight. Bones in your body are living organs that contain blood vessels, nerves, fat tissues, and blood-cell-forming tissues.

3 Functions of the skeleton Framework for Support and Movement Protection Storage of Minerals Production of Blood Cells

4 Framework for Support and Movement The skeletal system serves as a framework for the support of the body. Bones serve as levers and with the muscular system produce movement.

5 The skeletal system protects delicate organs such as the brain, spinal cord, heart, and lungs. skull – brain (eyes, inner ears) ribs - heart and lungs vertebrae - spinal cord

6 Storage of Minerals especially … calcium phosphorus

7 Production of Blood Cells bone marrow is involved in blood cell production

8 Anatomy and Composition of a Bone The bone's surface is covered with a layer of dense, white, fibrous tissue called the periosteum. The periosteum is responsible for muscle attachment and for bone growth and repair.

9 Anatomy and Composition of a Bone The cavity (shaft – the long main part of a bone) in the middle of the bone is filled with bone marrow.

10 Anatomy and Composition of a Bone bone marrow - a soft tissue that produces blood cells; located in the marrow cavity of long bones and in the spaces of spongy bone

11 Bone Marrow In young people this cavity is filled mostly with red bone marrow, a soft tissue that produces red blood cells and certain other blood cells. Makes approximately a billion new blood cells everyday.

12 Bone Marrow Yellow bone marrow is fatty tissue that gradually replaces the red bone marrow as people grow older.

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14 Ligaments & Tendons ligaments - tough, flexible bands of connective tissue that attach bones to other bones at joints (joined to the periosteum)

15 Ligaments & Tendons tendons - bands of connective tissue that connect muscles to bones (joined to the periosteum)

16 two main types of tissue make up the skeleton Bone - consists of living bone cells and the non-living material they secrete Cartilage - a flexible supporting tissue blood vessels never pass through cartilage

17 Osteon (Haversian system) a unit of bone tissue; composed of a central canal which housed a blood vessel, osteocytes (bone cells) and matrix (layers of nonliving material around it)

18 Osteon

19 Bone fractures fracture - the breaking of a bone or tissue

20 Fractures are classified according to the cause of the break & the nature. types of fractures: cause: traumatic fracture spontaneous fracture nature: compound fracture simple fracture complete incomplete comminuted greenstick impacted

21 traumatic fracture if break is caused by an injury

22 spontaneous fracture if break is caused by a disease

23 compound fracture if broken bone is exposed to the outside of the body by a break in the skin

24 Simple fracture if the broken bone remains protected by uninjured skin

25 complete fracture fracture line extends entirely through the bone

26 incomplete fracture fracture line extends partially through the bone

27 comminuted fracture bone is splintered

28 greenstick fracture one side of the bone is broken and other side is bent

29 Impacted fracture one fragment is firmly forced into the other

30 Repair of bone fractures Unlike most body tissues, bone heals with its own cells & not those of scar tissue. treatment is 2 fold: 1)must be set in proper alignment 2)immobilization

31 joint a connection between two or more bones or between cartilage and bone

32 Joints are designed for specific functions and are classified into three groups according to the degree of movement: Freely Movable Joints Slightly Movable Joints Immovable Joints

33 Freely Movable Joints ball and socket hinge pivot gliding

34 Ball and socket joint

35 Hinge joint

36 Pivot joint

37 Gliding joint

38 Slightly Movable Joints connect vertebrae

39 Immovable Joints sutures - the interlocking margins of skull bones

40 Anatomy of a joint Tendon Bursa Patella Femur Tibia Ligament Synovial Cavity

41 synovial membrane lines the inner surface of the joint cavity fluid, which acts as a shock absorber between the bones secretes a lubricating fluid called synovial

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43 ligaments connect the bones of a joint

44 ligaments

45 tendons connects muscle to bone; often extend across the joint and strengthens it

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47 bursas Bursa a fluid-filled sac; lined with synovial membrane

48 bursas located between tendons, ligaments, & bones

49 bursas Bursa serve as cushions and reduce friction

50 Arthritis Rheumatism Sprain Double-jointed Bone & Joint Diseases and Disorders

51 An inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain. Arthritis frequently results in changes in the joint structure, greatly hampering movement. Arthritis

52 a general term for various conditions that are characterized by soreness and stiffness of muscles and joints Rheumatism

53 A stretch injury to the ligaments of a joint. In severe sprains, the ligaments may be torn. Sprain

54 results from abnormally long ligaments, which allow a joint to be easily dislocated Double-jointed

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