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A. Skeleton Functions 1. Provides support and shape a. Internal framework b. determines body’s shape c.. 2. Protects your organs (Axial Skeleton) a. Skull.

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Presentation on theme: "A. Skeleton Functions 1. Provides support and shape a. Internal framework b. determines body’s shape c.. 2. Protects your organs (Axial Skeleton) a. Skull."— Presentation transcript:

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2 A. Skeleton Functions 1. Provides support and shape a. Internal framework b. determines body’s shape c.. 2. Protects your organs (Axial Skeleton) a. Skull - the brain b. Rib cage - the heart and lungs c. Vertebrae - the spinal cord

3 3. Enables movement (Appendicular Skeleton) a. Sites for muscle attachment b. Pull of muscles makes movement possible 4. Produces blood cells a. In the red bone marrow 5. Stores fat and minerals a. Fat stored in yellow marrow b. Calcium and phosphate stored in a rigid matrix

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5 B. Skeleton Structure 1. Bones a. 206 bones b. Living tissue with blood vessels and nerves c. Endoskeleton (inside the body) d.. 2. Ligaments a. Tough, flexible connective tissue b. Holds bones together c. Allows or prevents movement d.. 3. Cartilage a. Strong, flexible, smooth connective tissue b. Cushions ends of bones c. Allows smooth movement d..

6 C. Bone composition 1. Compact bone tissue a.Dense b.Rigid and hard c.Forms around blood capillaries that feed the bone d.. 2. Spongy bone tissue a.Lacy open spaces b.Provides strength and support c.Found in long bones (arms and legs) d.Sometimes contains red marrow

7 3. Mineral cycle – Growth and repair a. Osteoblasts (bone cells) build calcium and other minerals into a matrix of bone 1)process is called ossification b. Osteoclasts (bone cells) break down bone and deposit the calcium back into the blood (to build new bone) 4. Connective tissue a. Collagen (a protein) makes bones flexible and durable b. is woven into the matrix with the minerals 5. Marrow a. Soft tissue inside of bones 1)Red Marrow a)Produce red and white blood cells 2)Yellow Marrow a)Stores fat

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9 D. Bone Growth 1. Fetus – most bones start as cartilage 2. Cartilage replaced by bone as baby grows 3. Osteocytes (bone cells) move into cartilage and change it into bone 4. Cartilage in growth plates continues to produce bone as child grows 1. Directed by hormones 5. Growth finished at age Hardens completely 2. Can repair self if broken

10 E. Bone Connection - Joints 1. Joints a. Allow movement orrestrict movement b. Connected by ligaments c. Cushioned by cartilage d. Fuse in skull (as a baby grows) 2. Types of joints a. Ball and socket 1)Allows rotation 2)Example: shoulders and hips

11 3. Gliding joints a. Allows flexibility in many directions b. Example: Wrist and ankles 4. Hinge joints a. Allows back and forth movement (like door hinge) b. Example: knees and elbows 5. Pivot joints a. Bones rotate and move slightly up and down b. Example: vertebrae

12 Broken Wrist

13 F. Injuries and Disorders 1. Fractures a. Impact breaks bone b. Usually heals in 6-8 weeks 2. Sprains a. Injury to ligament – stretching joint too far 1)Tissues tear 2)Swollen and painful to move 3)Common sports injury

14 1. Osteoporosis a. Disease that causes bone tissue to become thin and weak b. Weak bones break easily c. Older adults who did not get enough calcium before they were Arthritis a. Disease causes joints to swell, stiffen and become painful and misshapen b. Treated with drugs that reduce swelling

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16 VI. Muscles A. Function of Muscles 1. Pump blood through body 2. Stability and movement 3. Move material inside the body a.Blood in arteries and veins b.Digestion system

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18 1. Three types of muscles a. Skeletal a.Voluntary – able to control movements b.Contractions pull bones together c.Most work in pairs around a joint - one contracts, the other relaxes 1)Flexor bends a joint 2)Extender straightens a joint 3)Example: bicep (flexor) and tricep (extender) B. Three Types of Muscles

19 1. Smooth Muscle a.Involuntary – not able to control b.Internal organs and blood vessels c.Moves materials through the body 1)Arteries and veins (blood) 2)Digestive system (food and waste) 2. Cardiac Muscle a.Tissue that makes up the heart b.Never gets tired – contains lots of mitochondria c.Contractions push blood out of the heart

20 C. Injuries and disorders 1. Muscle strains and tears a. Injury if overstretched or torn b. Occurs if muscles are not warmed or stretched properly 1)Muscle tissue swells and is painful 2)Needs rest to heal 2. Muscular dystrophy 1. Hereditary disease that causes skeletal muscle to become weaker over time 2. Affects how muscle proteins form 3. Poor balance and difficulty walking

21 3. Tendinitis a. Inflammation of tendons that connect muscle to bone b. Can be torn if overused c. Needs rest to heal d. May be treated with medicines that reduce inflammation

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23 D. Benefits of Exercise 1. Increase strength, endurance and flexibility 2. Keeps heart, lungs and bones healthy 3. Reduces stress and helps with sleep


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