Presentation on theme: "Thumb Lab Homework Bind your opposable thumb to your hand using a cloth to tie it to your hand, or you can just tape it. Try the following activities."— Presentation transcript:
1 Thumb Lab HomeworkBind your opposable thumb to your hand using a cloth to tie it to your hand, or you can just tape it.Try the following activities at home:Use the remote controlOpen a door by turning a knobDrink from a cupTie your shoeWrite using a pen or pencilFor each activity, write a few sentences describing your observations and experienceHumans are one of the few animals that have this opposable thumb. Explain if this is a benefit or a disadvantage.
4 FunctionsIt protects our vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungsIt gives us the shape that we have, without it we would be a blob of blood and tissue on the floorIt provides us with movement. Because our muscles are attached to bones, when muscles moves, they move bones, and we moveIt is responsible for the production of blood cellsIt stores the minerals calcium and phosphorus
5 Why didn’t the skeleton cross the road? It didn’t have any guts .
6 You have 206 bones in your body as adult As a baby, you mostly are made up of cartilage, a soft and flexible tissue, but as you grow the cartilage is replaced by boneAlso, a baby’s skeleton still has bone that is not completely fused together, so they have 275 bonesThe tips of the nose, outer ear, and parts of the ribs remain cartilage our entire lives, which is a flexible tissue (softer than bone, tough bendable tissue)Cartilage also cushions our joints.
7 JOINTSPlaces in the body where two or more bones meet or join
8 Ball and Socket Joint allows for the greatest range of motion (found in the hip and shoulder)
9 The hinge Joint provides movement backwards and forwards (elbow and knee)
16 Compact BoneThe part of bone that does not have any visible openings is called compact boneIt is rigid and dense
17 Bone MarrowThe center of the bone is made of a spongy material called marrowBlood stem cells are blood cells at their earliest stage of development; the blood cells form in the red marrowWhen stem cells mature into blood cells, they are released into the blood streamYellow marrow stores fat
18 So deep in the bones, in the marrow, blood cells are formed So deep in the bones, in the marrow, blood cells are formed. You will learn in the heart unit coming up, that red blood cells only live 120 days, after which they must be replaced
20 Mature Stem Cells and Cancer The mature stem cells associated with those that form blood cells in the bone marrow are the most common type used to treat human diseases todayBone marrow stem cells have been used to treat cancer patients with leukemia and lymphomaChemotherapy kills most of the patient’s leukemia cells, as well as some of their bone marrow stem cellsIf stem cells in bone marrow are removed before the chemotherapy, and then re-injected after treatment, the stem cells in the marrow are able to produce large amounts of red blood and white blood cells, to keep the body healthy and to help fight off infections
22 Ligaments attach bone to bone, while tendons attach muscle to bone
23 People who are double-jointed don’t have two joints as the name implies…they just are able to naturally stretch more than others
24 This could be because… They have extra stretchy ligaments Or they may have more shallow sockets where the bone fits in a joint(Shallow sockets allow a greater range of motion than a deep one)Or the ends of the bone are smoother than normal
25 Sprain- an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by them being over stretched beyond their normal capacity, and possible torn
26 Fracture- a break in the bone; fractures vary in their severity
27 Dislocation- a bone is forced out of its joint-ouch!
28 ArthritisDisease in which the joints become inflamed, or damaged due to wear and tear, causes pain, redness, swelling, and possibly loss of functionTwo types: Osteoarthritis (most common type)- caused by wear and tear of the joints over time, common in older adultsRheumatoid arthritis- caused by inflammation of the joints
29 In this knee, arthritis will cause joint problems because of the loss of cartilage shown. This results in inflammation, swelling and pain,
30 Can Cracking Knuckles Lead to Arthritis? Possibly osteoarthritis, because it can lead to wear and tear of the joints, but not very likelyThe knuckles are the joints in the fingers and toes. They are bathed in a liquid called synovial fluid which lubricates the joints. Some times bubbles of gas form in this fluid and when the joint is manipulated in a certain way, it can cause the bubbles to burst, resulting in a popping sound.
31 OsteoporosisOsteoporosis is a bone disease best described as “porous or brittle bones”Bones are living tissue that are constantly being builtBone cells are called osteocytesWith this disease, the rate of bone loss is greater than the rate of bone building, resulting in thin, brittle bones that can fracture easily
32 Osteoporosis FactsMore than 28 million Americans have osteoporosis or are at risk of developing itFrom birth to adolescence new bone is built faster than old bone is removedDuring adolescence bone grows even faster and strongerBone mass peaks between the ages of 20-30, after that bone loss can outpace bone formationAfter menopause in women, bone loss speeds up because of the loss of the hormone, estrogen, that helps to protect bones
34 How can you help prevent osteoporosis and keep bones healthy? Eating a well-balanced diet rich in calciumRegularly doing weight- bearing activities (anaerobic exercises)Avoiding excess alcoholAvoid tobacco smokeBuilding healthy bones at any age can help prevent osteoporosis later in life!
35 BONE Building Minerals Calcium rich foodsPhosphorus rich foodsDairy foods-Milk, cheese, yogurtSoy MilkDark leafy vegetables, like spinach and kaleAlmondsOrange juice and other products that have calcium added to themDairy foods-Milk, yogurt, cheeseMeat and FishAlmondsEggsPeanutsLentilsBreadWheat bran
36 ScoliosisScoliosis is an unhealthy curvature of a normally straight spineA rotation of the vertebrae and rib cage usually accompanies this unhealthy curveIf untreated it can lead to disfigurement, respiratory problems, digestive problems, and painIt may be caused by an injury or trauma, or poor neurological or muscular control of the spine, but for most cases the cause is unknown
37 ScoliosisScoliosis is sometimes caused be injuries or trauma, but the cause for most cases is unknownTreatment can include wearing a brace, but some cases might require surgical correction of curveBut many cases are mild and will never require treatmentScoliosis is more common among girls, can be genetic, and is usually diagnosed during adolescence
39 I hope you are ready for your test on Friday I hope you are ready for your test on Friday! Study your notes on the skeletal system, and get to know all those bones in your lovely body…and yes, spelling will count