Functions Provide stable framework which aids in the protection of internal organs. Storage of minerals like calcium and phosphorus. Manufacture red blood cells as well as some of the white blood cells
Axial skeleton -Skull, spine, ribs and sternum (breastbone). Appendicular skeleton -Includes hands, feet, arms, legs, shoulders and hips
Types of bones Short bones -Bones found in the wrist and ankles. Long bones -Bones found in the arms and legs. Flat bones -Bones found in the skull, hips, ribs and shoulder blades Irregular bones -Bones found in the vertebrae.
Cartilage - Flexible connective tissue that adds protection between the joints and gives shape to certain parts of the body like the ears and nose.
Types of Joints Ball and socket joint -Found in the shoulders and hips Hinge joint -Found in the fingers, toes, knees and elbows Ellipsoidal joint -The group of bones that make up the wrist and ankles. Pivot joint -The joint that sits at the top of the spine(vertebrae) and allows the skull to pivot sideways and move up and down.
Connective tissues Ligaments - Strong fibrous bands that connect bone to bone. Tendons - Strong fibrous cords that hold muscle to muscle or muscle to bone.
Fractures Hairline- small crack in the bone usually from repetitive motion Complete or transverse- bone is broken all the way across the bone Comminuted or shattered- bone crushed into many pieces Spiral- bone broken in a spiral fashion from twisting of limb. Compound- bone breaks and sticks out of the skin.
Problems with Skeletal System Osteoporosis -Loss of bone mass from poor nutrition or could be part of the aging process. Scoliosis -Bones become soft or weak and tend to curve. Often found in the spine.
Joint injuries Dislocation-bone skips from normal position Torn cartilage- result from sharp blow or severe twisting Bunion- swelling of the bursa in first joint of big toe Bursitis- Bursa in any joint becomes inflamed Arthritis- inflammation of a joint, characterized by pain, swelling, stiffness, and redness