TYPES OF BONES What do they do? LONG- SHORT- IRREGULAR- FLAT-
TYPES OF BONES Where are they found? LONG BONES SHORT BONES IRREGULAR BONES FLAT BONES Found in: Arms- Legs- Hands- Feet- Found in: Wrists- Ankles- Digits- Tail Bone - Found in: Mouth- Spine- Found in: Cranium- Thorax- Pelvic Girdle-
CLASSIFICATION OF FRACTURES Fracture: Any Kind of Break in the Bone OPEN FractureCLOSED Fracture a.k.a. COMPOUNDa.k.a. SIMPLE -> causes a break->does not break in the skin through the skin -> can cause deformation in the area of the break
TYPES OF FRACTURES HAIRLINE: Always Simple, Break is Incomplete, Two parts of bone do not separate. TRANSVERSE: Can be Simple or Compound, Break is completely through the bone, Can result from sharp blow or stress COMMINUTED: Usually Compound; although it can be closed Bone breaks into more than two pieces Commonly results from severe force
ILLNESSES Degenerative Disease: A breakdown of health over a period of time, a gradual progression of illness. OSTEOPOROSIS SCOLIOSIS * Degenerative in Nature*Lateral curvature of the Spine *Loss of bone mass as a result*Affects adolescents & pre-teens of the aging process. during growth spurts. *A condition in which bone density*Cause is usually unknown (idiopathic) decreases causing bones to *Can be exacerbated by poor posture, become brittle & easily fractured. back alignment issues, wearing *Women affected often hunch forward. bookbag over same shoulder repeatedly *Can be prevented by eating healthy *Good idea to eat diet high in Calcium. diet high in Calcium*Treatment depends on Severity: from *There is no cure. Exercises to back brace to surgery.
JOINTS Where two or more bones come together. Functions, Classifications, Types, Injuries & Illnesses
FUNCTIONS OF THE JOINTS Provides protection to Vital Organs (fixed). Provides movement to the skeleton (mobile). Allows functionality to the body (mobile).
CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS FIXED: Immobile; does not bend or allow movement; two or more bones fused together for organ protection MOBILE: Movable; bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, nerves & blood vessels are all present
TYPES OF JOINTS Hinge Joint Two directional: Open & Closed Ball & Socket Joint Allows widest range of movement: Backward, Forward, Sideways, Circular Pivot Joint Two directional: Left/ Right -or- Up/ Down Can work together for circular motion Elipsoidal Joint Many bones working together to allow all movement except pivotal/ upside-down
INJURIES TO THE JOINTS DISLOCATION: *When bone slips out from its normal position at a joint *Not only affects bones involved, but also can injure cartilage & ligaments *Treatment includes visiting physician immediately or an ER Visit replacing bones into proper position at the joint (popping it into place) immobilization of bones & muscles surrounding injured joint SUBLUXATION: *Partial Dislocation *Not only affects bones involved, but also can injure cartilage & ligaments *Treatment includes visiting physician immediately or an ER Visit replacing bones into proper position at the joint (popping it into place) immobilization of bones & muscles surrounding injured joint TORN CARTILAGE: *Results from sharp blow or severe twisting of joint *Treatment includes visiting physician or a visit to the ER arthroscopic surgery is most common way to repair torn cartilage
ILLNESSES TO THE JOINTS ARTHRITIS: Inflammation of a joint resulting from wear & tear on the joints Characterized by pain, swelling, stiffness, & redness Most common in older adults No Cure; although treatment of symptoms is available. BUNIONS: Inflammation of a joint caused from ill fitting shoes Characterized by pain, swelling, stiffness & redness where the big toe meets the ball of the foot; can displace alignment of the toe Can affect people at any age. Surgical procedures can remove bunion and repair toes alignment.
SKELETAL SYSTEM REVIEW 1.What is the Importance of Skeletal System? 2.What is the Importance of Bones? 3.What does the bone do? 4.How does the bone grow? 5.How does a bone harden/ repair itself? 6.What are the parts of the bone? 7.What are the types of bone? 8.Where does one find each type of bone? 9.Three key ways to take care of the skeletal system. 10.What body parts are found in a joint? 11.If one breaks their bone, what can one determine by looking at the injured area? 12.What does the victim of a broken bone need to rely on an x-ray for? 13.What are the types of fractures? 14.What are the classifications of joints? 15.What is each type of joint do?/ Why is each important? 16.Who suffers from Osteoporosis? Scoliosis? Arthritis? 17.How can one tell the difference between a dislocation and a subluxation? 18.The Axial Skeleton and the Appendicular Skeleton are different. How? 19.What does a tendon do? 20.What does a ligament do?