2What is bone?Bone is living tissue that makes up the body's skeleton. There are three types of bone tissue, including the following:
3Compact (dense) bone tissue the harder, outer tissue of bones; made up of precise arrangements of microscopic cylindrical structures called osteons. The matrix and osteocytes of osteon are laid down in concentric rings around a central (Haversian) canal which contains blood vessels and nerves.
4If you look at compact bone tissue with naked eye, it look very dense: you cannot see any cavities in it.
5Spongy (cancellous) bone tissue the sponge-like tissue inside bones. In contrast, made up of irregular latticework of thin blades of bone called trabeculae. The spaces between the trabeculae contain blood vessels and red marrow which produces blood cells.
6The spaces between the trabeculae can be seen with naked eye and give spongy bone tissue its "spongy" look.
7subchondral tissuethe smooth tissue at the ends of bones, which is covered with another type of tissue called cartilage. Cartilage is the specialized, gristly connective tissue that is present in adults, and the tissue from which most bones develop in children.
8What are the different types of bone cells What are the different types of bone cells? The different types of bone cells include the following:osteoblast - found within the bone, its function is to form the tissue and minerals that give bone its strength.osteoclast - a very large cell formed in bone marrow, its function is to absorb and remove unwanted tissue; remodelingosteocyte - found within the bone, its function is to help maintain bone as living tissue.
9Fat cells and hematopoietic cells are found within the bone marrow. Hematopoietic cells are those that produce blood cells.
11Bone's function?shape, support, and protect body structures; aid in body movementserve as a site for development and storage of blood cells disorders and diseases that can affect bone.serves as a storage site for minerals; provides the medium - marrow - for the development and storage of blood cells.
12But How?Supportbones of the leg, pelvic, and vertebral column hold up the bodythe mandible supports the teethprovide support for muscles and other soft organsProtectionbones enclose and protect the brain, spinal chord, lungs, heart, pelvic viscera, and bone marrowMovementof course, to walk, reach, touch (limb leverage)lung ventilation depends on by movement of ribs by skeletal muscles
13But How? Blood Formation red bone marrow is major producer of blood cellsElectrolyte Balancethe skeleton is the body’s main mineral reservoir; it sores calcium and phosphates and releases them according to physiological needs of the bodyAcid-base balancebone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing/releasing alkaline mineral salts
14Types of Bone Long Bone Example: Femur Short Bone Example: Carpal Flat BoneExample: PelvicIrregular BoneExample: facialSesamoid BoneExample: Patella
50Pectoral girdles are responsible for attaching the superior appendages (the arms, forearms, wrists, and hands) to the axial skeleton.On each side of the body the pectoral girdle consists of two bones: the scapula and the clavicle.
63Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Female pelvisTilted forward, adapted for childbearingTrue pelvis defines birth canalCavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacityMale pelvisTilted less forwardAdapted for support of heavier male build and stronger musclesCavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep