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Bone Histology and Skeletal Structure Review

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1 Bone Histology and Skeletal Structure Review

2 What is bone? Bone is living tissue that makes up the body's skeleton. There are three types of bone tissue, including the following:

3 Compact (dense) bone tissue
the harder, outer tissue of bones; made up of precise arrangements of microscopic cylindrical structures called osteons. The matrix and osteocytes of osteon are laid down in concentric rings around a central (Haversian) canal which contains blood vessels and nerves.

4 If you look at compact bone tissue with naked eye, it look very dense: you cannot see any cavities in it.

5 Spongy (cancellous) bone tissue
the sponge-like tissue inside bones. In contrast, made up of irregular latticework of thin blades of bone called trabeculae. The spaces between the trabeculae contain blood vessels and red marrow which produces blood cells.

6 The spaces between the trabeculae can be seen with naked eye and give spongy bone tissue its "spongy" look.

7 subchondral tissue the smooth tissue at the ends of bones, which is covered with another type of tissue called cartilage. Cartilage is the specialized, gristly connective tissue that is present in adults, and the tissue from which most bones develop in children.

8 What are the different types of bone cells
What are the different types of bone cells? The different types of bone cells include the following: osteoblast - found within the bone, its function is to form the tissue and minerals that give bone its strength. osteoclast - a very large cell formed in bone marrow, its function is to absorb and remove unwanted tissue; remodeling osteocyte - found within the bone, its function is to help maintain bone as living tissue.

9 Fat cells and hematopoietic cells are found within the bone marrow.
Hematopoietic cells are those that produce blood cells.


11 Bone's function? shape, support, and protect body structures; aid in body movement serve as a site for development and storage of blood cells disorders and diseases that can affect bone. serves as a storage site for minerals; provides the medium - marrow - for the development and storage of blood cells.

12 But How? Support bones of the leg, pelvic, and vertebral column hold up the body the mandible supports the teeth provide support for muscles and other soft organs Protection bones enclose and protect the brain, spinal chord, lungs, heart, pelvic viscera, and bone marrow Movement of course, to walk, reach, touch (limb leverage) lung ventilation depends on by movement of ribs by skeletal muscles

13 But How? Blood Formation
red bone marrow is major producer of blood cells Electrolyte Balance the skeleton is the body’s main mineral reservoir; it sores calcium and phosphates and releases them according to physiological needs of the body Acid-base balance bone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing/releasing alkaline mineral salts

14 Types of Bone Long Bone Example: Femur Short Bone Example: Carpal
Flat Bone Example: Pelvic Irregular Bone Example: facial Sesamoid Bone Example: Patella

15 Skeletal Structure Tissue
cartilage osseous tissue bone marrow periosteum/endosteum

16 The Skull

17 Anterior View of Skull

18 Right Lateral Aspect of Skull

19 Posterior View of Skull

20 Midsagittal View of Skull

21 Inferior Superficial View of Skull

22 Superior View of Cranial Cavity

23 Nasal Cavity

24 Vertebrae, Ribs, and Sternum

25 How many bones are there in the vertebral column?

26 Answer: 26

27 How regions are there in the vertebral column and what are their names?

28 Answer: 5 regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

29 What are the name of the first two bones of the vertebral column and their functions?

30 Answer: Atlas and Axis the support and movement of the skull

31 What type of vertebrae is this picture?

32 Answer: Cervical vertebrae

33 What are these three sections of the cervical vertebrae?

34 Answer 1) Spinous Process 2) Superior Articular Facet 3) Body

35 What type of vertebrae is this picture?

36 Answer: Thoracic Vertebrae

37 What are these three sections of the thoracic vertebrae?

38 Answer 1) Superior Costal Facet 2) Lamina 3) Vertebral Foramen

39 How many pair’s ribs does the human body have?

40 Answer: 12 pairs

41 What are the names of the types of ribs?

42 Answer: True and False Ribs

43 What is the difference between True and False Ribs?

44 Answer: True ribs are attached to the sternum.

45 What bone is this?

46 Answer Sternum

47 What are the names of theses sections of the Sternum?

48 Answer 1) Manubrium 2) Body 3)Xiphoid Process

49 The Pectoral Girdle and Superior Appendages

50 Pectoral girdles are responsible for attaching the superior appendages (the arms, forearms, wrists, and hands) to the axial skeleton. On each side of the body the pectoral girdle consists of two bones: the scapula and the clavicle.

51 Scapula

52 The scapula is also known as the shoulder blade.
It is connected to the humerus by a ball and socket joint. It is an irregular bone.

53 Clavicle is an irregular bone

54 Humerus The humerus is a long bone.
It connects to the ulna by the elbow which is a hinge joint.

55 Ulna and Radius Are both long bones

56 Hand Most of these bones are long bones.

57 Pelvic Girdle and Inferior Appendages


59 The hip bone is composed of three elements:
Which also fuse at the acetabulum (the socket of the hip joint).

60 Here’s your chance at the extra point!


62 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure

63 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure
Female pelvis Tilted forward, adapted for childbearing True pelvis defines birth canal Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity Male pelvis Tilted less forward Adapted for support of heavier male build and stronger muscles Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep

64 Thigh, Leg and Foot

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